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Linux tutorial for beginners – Linux guide in 2021

If you are reading this article it’s because you want to have a general idea about Linux. This article Linux tutorial for beginners is not only for beginners, but it can be also for advanced.

Also, we will explain to you the different elements of Linux that you ought to know about before you go and delve into the Linux world. In the previous article, we discuss the difference between Termux from Linux, because most Termux users are confused about that.

Linux tutorial for beginners

Linux has many benefits. However, it also has numerous little aspects that can leave you perplexed. In this Linux tutorial, we will start from the basics of Linux and learn all the major Linux concepts you should know. Also, the good news is that if you are having already the kills on these points you can read Basic Linux commands for beginners to advanced

  • What is Linux
  • Historic of Linux
  • Definition of Linux concepts
  • GNU Linux
  • Linux distributions
  • Open-source
  • Linux vs Windows
  • Why use Linux?
  • Servers vs Desktop
  • Linux Commands

What is Linux?

The first thing that we need to talk about is that Linux is an operating system. For those who do not know what an operating system is. OS is the software layer that is between your hardware, and the software that allows you to get something productive done on a computer.

Linux is an operating system that acts as an intermediary as a bridge between the physical device and the instruction code of the program. The main thing that you just need to realize is that in the Linux world, the software that you will be running is a completely different type compared to the one of Microsoft Windows.

Historic of Linux – Linux tutorial for beginners

Linux did not begin as an Operating system, however. Linux was a kernel created by Linus Torvalds while he was a student at the University of Helsinki. The kernel is essential but in itself, it is useless. It can only function in the context of a complete operating system.

The Linux kernel was used in combination with the GNU operating system. It is important to understand what the Kernel is as this is the defining component of Linux, we are going to see it in concept definition.

And, so between 1991 and 1994, Linus Torvalds created Linux operating system by combining the GNU OS with the Linux kernel. Basically, Linus Torvalds wanted an operating system that is not only free but also something that he can customize.

The big thing with Linux is, because it has a “UX” suffix and because most of the commands that you use look a lot like UNIX commands, people think that Linux is a type of UNIX operating system. This is totally not the case. UNIX is its own type of operating system. Linux is its own type of operating system.

Definition of Linux concepts

When we talk about Linux there are plenty of concepts that you must know. Here we are going to discuss some of them.

What is kernel?

Now, this is the time you are going to know what kernel is. The kernel is a computer program at the core of a computer’s operating system that has complete control over everything in the system.

There are two major types of kernels competing in today’s market: Windows and Unix-like Kernels. The Linux kernel falls under the latter as does BSD, Mac OS, and Solaris. Kernels tend to fall under three categories;

  • Micro kernel:  A micro kernel only manages what it has to CPU, Memory and IPC or Inter-process communications.
  • Monolithic kernel: like Linux are the opposite of Micro kernels
  • Hybrid: The Windows kernel falls into Hybrid because it has the ability to pick and choose what to run in both user and super user mode.  

Linux command Line Interface (LCLI)

The Linux command line is a text interface to your computer. Often referred to as the shell, terminal, it can give the appearance of being complex and confusing to use.

Operating system (OS)

 Also, an operating system (OS) is the system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

Linux Graphical Interface (LGUI)

A Linux GUI application or a Linux graphical Interface is basically that part you can interact with using your mouse, touchpad, or touch screen. You also, have icons and other visual prompts that you can activate with your mouse pointer to access the functionalities.

Terminal User Interface (TUI)

TUI is also known as a Text-based User Interface. This is the most uncommon term of the three.

Open-Source – Linux tutorial for beginners

Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

GNU Linux

As mentioned below, the most important part of an operating system is the kernel. In a GNU Linux system, Linux is the kernel component.

Because the Linux kernel alone does not form a working operating system, it’s better to use the term GNU Linux to refer to systems that many people can refer to as Linux.

Linux Distributions

Major companies and educational institutions like Linux. And since Linux is Open source, they are able to see the source code. This gives the ability to developers to start creating their own versions. And today, you have Red Hat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Google Android, Kali Linux, and many more. Making Linux source code available to the public facilitated the creation of something called distributions (distros).

Now when you want to decide which Linux distribution you want you use, you are going first to think about what you will be working with it. It is much important to know first your need before to choose which distribution you want to use before you install it on your pc. You can also look at our article 6 Best distribution of Linux mostly used by hackers.

Linux Distribution list.

  • Red hat: The last official release of the non-split distribution was Red Hat Linux 9 in March 2003.
  • CentOs: Community-supported Linux distribution designed as an Open-Source version of RHEL and well suited for servers
  • Fedora: Community-supported Linux distribution sponsored by Red Hat.
  • OpenSUSE: A community-developed Linux distribution, sponsored by SUSE.
  • Mandriva: Open-source distribution (with exceptions), discontinued in 2011.
  • Kali Linux: Developed by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing.
  • Parrot OS: A Linux distribution based on Debian used by penetration testers.

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Open-source – Linux tutorial for beginners

Now that we have talked basically about the Historic of Linux, the next thing we have to talk about is Open source. Of course, at this point in time, you have probably heard of open-source software.

You are also probably under the wrong idea that open source software is free software. This is not the case. Open software is not free software. As I mentioned above open-source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

What is the difference between open source and other types of software?

Normal software

Some software has source code that only the developer or team who created it only can maintain and modify. Only the original authors of proprietary software can legally copy, inspect and modify that software.

And in order to use proprietary software, computer users must agree the terms of contract. The user must agree that he will not do anything with the software that the developer has not permitted. Microsoft Office is an example.

     Open-source

Then, know that open source software is different. Its authors make its source code available to others who would like to view that code, copy it, learn from it, change or share it. LibreOffice is an example.

Linux vs Windows – Linux tutorial for beginners

Now it’s time to see what the difference between windows and Linux is.

Windows is a group of several OS families and each of its versions GUI (graphical user interface) with a desktop that enables users to view folders and files in this OS. Below here is the picture which illustrates the comparison between Windows and Linux.

Why to use Linux?

The best assets of Linux when compared with other operating systems are its reliability, price, and the freedom it provides you. Now, it’s time for us to gain some knowledge about why you should use Linux OS.

  • Support programing language

Almost all programming languages (Ruby, Perl, Java, C/C++, Python, etc.) are supported by Linux. It also offers many applications that are useful for programming.

  • Open-source

You can add new features, delete things that you don’t like, and customize some features. You can customize it as you wish.

  • Stability

Linux systems are very stable and they won’t freeze up like other systems.

  • Security

Most viruses that attack an operating system are developed via the Active X software framework, and Linux doesn’t have this. The same principle applies to various other viruses like worms, Trojans, or spyware.

  • Free

Also you can download most Linux distributions freely from the web. Additionally, the Linux distributions can be downloaded freely and installed legally on any number of computers and can be given freely to other people.

Server vs Desktop

Now in this part we are going to see the difference between server versions to Desktop version. There are generally two versions of Linux that everybody is going to provide. Whether you get Kali Linux, Ubuntu, Fedora or whatever distribution that may be they will normally have two versions of distribution.

One is going to be the server version while the other is going to be the desktop version. The main difference between the server versions and the desktop versions of any of these Linux operating systems is that, the server version is a stripped down version of Linux. Also, the sever version has no graphical user interface that mean you will deal only with the command line.

Different from the Desktop version, when you install it you’ll immediately be able to navigate the operating system using the graphical user interface, much like Microsoft Windows.

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Linux command

This is the part where we are going to see some basics Linux command. With Linux command line you can install applications, update, start services etc…

Then, know that everything that will be showing in this article will be on kali Linux. You are free to use any distribution of your choice, but remember that some command will not work on other distros consider to make some research about the command if doesn’t work on your distribution.

Sudo:  basically it means “super user do”. In Linux you can’t login as Root, now to have access of what an admin can do you have to turn on a super user by using sudo command.

Man pages: it stands for manual pages. When you do not understand how a command works, the man page is where you look up information about command. $ Man ping.

Tasksel: it means “Task select” you can use this command to install an additional part of Linux distribution. $ sudo tasksel

Apt-get: This is the command that you use in Linux to install a given program. You don’t need to have a cd driver or a set up. $ sudo apt-get install hydra.

Top: if you are coming from windows world, think of top as a basically your task manger. With this command you will see how much your memory is being used, how much of your CPU is being used, and then list all process currently running on your system. $ sudo top to kill a process just type K the id of precess. $ K1578.

Directory manager

Cd: It stand for “Change directory” if you want to go to a different directory or folder, you type cd name of location. $ cd Desktop

Ls: if you want to list all the files and folders within a particular directory in this case consider to use $ ls.

Conclusion

There you have it. That is all there the basics of Linux. Again what we have mentioned in this article the only reason this is intimidating and the only reason anybody is nervous about this is that they do not know what commands to run. Once you understand the commands that you need to run, it all becomes easy.

How to install Windows Subsystem for Linux – complete Guide

source: from kali.org

Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) allows users to run a Linux terminal environment. Also, install packages from the Kali archive, and run Linux applications and workflows on Windows 10.

You may want to run Kali Linux or Ubuntu on your Windows 10. In this article, we are going to see how you can run Kali Linux or Ubuntu in Windows 10.

In the previous article we saw how to install kali Linux properly on your computer in 2021, now let us see how to run it on Windows 10.

What is Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)?

The Windows Subsystem for Linux lets developers run a GNU/Linux environment. Then, as you know already what is WSL now let us see what is WLS 2.

What is WSL 2?

WSL 2 is a new version of the Windows Subsystem for Linux architecture that powers the Windows Subsystem for Linux to run ELF64 Linux binaries on Windows. 

What are the prerequisites to Install Win-Kex?

First, let us see what are prerequisites before jump on installing Win-Kex.

To install Win-Kex you need to have Windows 10 version 2004 or higher running on your computer. Also, using windows Terminal.

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Installation of Windows Subsystem for Linux

There are 2 options available for installing Windows Subsystem for linux (WSL):

  • Simplified install: The wsl –install simplified install command requires that you join the  Windows Insiders Program and install a preview build of Windows 10.
  • Manual install: It follows the six steps that will discuss in this article.

Also, if you run into an issue during installation, Windows provide the Troubleshooting installation.

In this article, we are going to discuss Manual Installation.

Install Kali Linux in Windows Subsystem on Linux 2

Step 1- Enable the Windows Subsystem for Linux.

In order to install Kali Linux, you must first enable the “Windows Subsystem for Linux”, then, open Windows PowerShell as administrator and run:

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart

Then, after running this command, Restart windows PowerShell, then reopen it again, and run:

Step 2 – Check requirements for running WSL 2

To update to WSL 2, you must be running Windows 10.

  • For x64 systems: Version 1903 or higher, with Build 18362 or higher.
  • For ARM64 systems: Version 2004 or higher, with Build 19041 or higher.
  • Builds lower than 18362 do not support WSL 2. Use the Windows Update Assistant to update your version of Windows.

To check your version and build number, select Windows + R type winver, select ok. or you can enter ver command in windows command prompt.

Step 3- Enable virtual Machine feature

Before installing WSL 2, you must enable the Virtual Machine Platform optional feature. Your machine will require virtualization capabilities to use this feature.

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:VirtualMachinePlatform /all /norestart

Then, Restart your machine to complete the WSL install update to WSL2.

Step – 4 Download the Linux Kernel update package

After you finished restarting your pc, then download and install the WSL2 Linux Kernel from here: https://aka.ms/wsl2kernel.

Step 5 – Set WSL 2 as your default version

Then open PowerShell as administrator and run:

wsl --set-default-version 2

Step 6 – Install your Linux distribution of choice

This last step is the installation of Kali Linux from the Microsoft Store. Also, to upgrade an existing WSL1 kali-linux installation, type: wsl --set-version kali-linux 2

After you have installed Kali Linux from Wicrosoft Store, Then run kali and finish the initial setup: set up your username and password

Install Win-Kex

kali@kali:~$ sudo apt update
kali@kali:~$ sudo apt install -y kali-win-kex

Refer to the Win-KeX Win usage documentation for further information.

Tor browser|| best browser for online Privacy and Anonymity

Tor browser

You may ask yourself, why should I start using Tor browser for my online privacy and anonymity?  If you care about protection of your information online you should read this.

You may find that if you are asking why to use Tor, the answer is simple. These days on the internet nothing is private, in fact many websites are providing online privacy but is a joke and our private browsing data has been using for business purposes like advertising. We are been tracked by Google, by our government and many of data collectors.

What is Tor browser?

source: from tor browser

Tor browser is the best powerful anonymous browser is completely free and open-source software built around onion routing. The privacy browser Tor protects you by sending your internet traffic and communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world.

Why should I use Tor browser?

Tor Browser uses the Tor network to protect your privacy and anonymity. Using the Tor network has two main properties:

  • Your internet service provider, and anyone watching your connection locally, will not be able to track your internet activity, including the names and addresses of the websites you visit.
  • The operators of the websites and services that you use, and anyone watching them, will see a connection coming from the Tor network instead of your real Internet (IP) address, and will not know who you are unless you explicitly identify yourself.

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Tor Browser is designed to prevent websites from “fingerprinting” or identifying you based on your browser configuration. By default, Tor Browser does not keep any browsing history. Cookies are only valid for a single session (until Tor Browser is exited or a New Identity is requested).

  • BLOCK TRACKERS Tor Browser isolates each website you visit so third-party trackers and ads can’t follow you. Any cookies automatically clear when you’re done browsing. So will your browsing history.
  • DEFEND AGAINST SURVEILLANCE Tor Browser prevents someone watching your connection from knowing what websites you visit. All anyone monitoring your browsing habits can see is that you’re using Tor.
  • RESIST FINGERPRINTING Tor Browser aims to make all users look the same, making it difficult for you to be fingerprinted based on your browser and device information.
  • BROWSE FREELY With Tor Browser, you are free to access sites your home network may have blocked.

How does it work?

Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows you to improve your privacy and security on the Internet. Tor works by sending your traffic through three random servers (also known as relays) in the Tor network. The last relay in the circuit (the “exit relay”) then sends the traffic out onto the public Internet.

How to get Tor browser?

The best and simplest way to download Tor Browser is from the official Tor Project website at https://www.torproject.org/download. When you are downloading Tor to his official page your connection to the site will be secured using HTTPS, which makes it much harder for somebody to tamper with.

What if you can’t access it official page?

If you’re unable to download Tor Browser from the official Tor Project website, you can instead try downloading it from one of tor official mirrors, either through EFF, Calyx Institute or CCC.

How to install?

Also, Tor browser is available for:

  •  Windows
  •  MacOs
  •  GNU/Linux
  •  Android

How to install Tor browser on windows?

Now it is time to install Tor once you have already download Tor browser for windows on Tor official download page.  Also, don’t forget that you must verify the file’s signature. When the download is complete, double click the .exe file. Complete the installation wizard process.

How to install Tor browser on MacOs?

Below we have seen how to install Tor on windows now it’s on MacOs when you have already download Tor browser on MacOs on Tor official download page.  Make sure you downloaded the macOS .dmg file. You must verify the file’s signature. When the download is complete, double click the .dmg file. Complete the installation wizard process.

How to install Tor browser on GNUX/Linux?

Then when you have already download Tor browser for macOs on Tor official download page.  Make sure you downloaded the GNU/Linux .tar.xz file. You must verify the file’s signature. When the download is complete, extract the archive with the command tar -xf [TB archive] or by using an archive manager. 

You’ll need to tell your GNU/Linux that you want the ability to execute shell scripts from the graphical interface. Navigate to the newly extracted Tor Browser directory. Next right-click on start-tor-browser.desktop, open Properties or Preferences and change the permission to allow executing file as a program. Double-click the icon to start up Tor Browser for the first time. Alternatively, from inside the Tor Browser directory, you can also start from the command line by running: ./start-tor-browser.desktop

How to install tor browser on android?

Go on play store and search for torbrowser you will get it.

conclusion

If you are in a country where Tor is blocked, you can configure Tor to connect to a bridge during the setup process. Select “Tor is censored in my country.” If Tor is not censored, one of the most common reasons Tor won’t connect is an incorrect system clock. Please make sure it’s set correctly. for more information about tor browser follow it’s official page

How to download videos with savefrom.net – Videos downloader

savefrom.net by geniusclub

you may be in need to download your favorite music on youtube here is the solution.

Youtube.com is the most popular video hosting and the third most popular website in the world. its functionality is limited whenever you try to download YouTube videos for free. You can save only a small number of videos and audio by using common methods.

SaveFrom.net offers the fastest way of Youtube video download in mp3, mp4, SQ, HD, Full HD quality, plus a wide range of formats for free. It’s the most convenient YouTube downloader you’ve ever tried! Save one video or song to your pc or mobile and see it for yourself!

How to proceed

With savefrom.net you can download video with it online video downloader or by adding addons in your browser

First, open SaveFrom.net Youtube video download website and enter the video’s URL to the corresponding field, at the top of the page.

savefrom.net by tgeniusclub

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Once you have opened savefromm , then click on “Download” button, and you’ll see the list with all available links. Now click on it, then it will ask you to choose the format you desire .

Then, if you chose the format desired now press on download.

The following step, go on your download list or press ctrl + j and you will see all your downloaded files.

Also, you can download Savefrom.net app and use it on your phone.

How to download youtube video by installing an add-ons in your browser

First, Once you’ve installed the Youtube downloader app on mac or pc, you’ll see “Download” button below each video offering to save HD or mp3.

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Then click on the gray arrow on the right of the Download button in order to choose the preferred format.

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Next, use ctr+j to open the download files.

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closing word

Congratulation you have reached the end of the guide. hope now you know how to download youtube video using savefrom.net. Now you can enjoy the videos and playlists offline! Works in Chrome, Firefox, or any other browser.