Category Archives: Non classé

How to create an executable file in command prompt (CMD) like a geek

In this article we are going to discuss how to create an executable file in command prompt, that is, how to create a program (script) that runs in CMD. To be able to do this, you will need to have some knowledge of command prompting, so you should know a few commands in this area.

If you don’t know, no problem; you can use the HELP command to help you with the CMD functions. Then, it will be up to you to continue your research to learn more. Let’s go 😉 !

Before we go any further, I hope you know what the command prompt is. For those who don’t know the command prompt, is the Windows command line interpreter (not a game console or anything like that). It’s used to execute commands. The console is a piece of software, or rather a way of using the operating system by means of commands called console codes. This term is very familiar to users of Linux systems.

Well, by default the text is white and there is no transparency but you can customise it. That’s right! This means that you can do everything under the command prompt and even more than you would do with the GUI. But that’s not what we’re going to talk about today, I’ll tell you about that in another article. Let’s move on to what we are interested in here.

As software, here we will use the Windows Notepad, but you can use a text editor that you want like sublime text or vscode. So the first thing to do is to launch your Notepad, then save it in a place you want (and with a name of your choice) but with the extension .cmd.

Look at the location you have chosen, you will see a nice executable file, you can even try by running it

.But in most cases, you will get a message like this:

If you find such a message, it is simply because your script has no command yet. So to correct it you just have to type commands in the file and save it. I use the HELP command that I mentioned above. If all goes well, when you run the little script it will start and close suddenly unless you used a different command than mine.

Well, CMD scripts are read by the computer as text files (line by line), that is to say, that the computer reads line by line your script. It tries to execute the tasks it understands and then continues if there is no more task to complete it closes the script.

If you want your script to stay open, use a command that either asks for information input or launches another program and then the script will be closed automatically only after closing the program it launched. Try with the DISKPART command to launch Diskpart, a partition manager (storage media in general) provided by Windows. Here are the captures of my two screens.

Then, if you execute this script it will show the message “You are watching the course code of my script” because the command echo help to display the message. And the command diskpart helps to run the small program “diskpart”

This is just a small script but you can add commands and even a complete program with the same principle. Thanks for reading this article, especially feel free to put any problems or recommendations in the comments. 👍👋

How to recover an installation ISO image from a USB stick (bootable).

It happens sometimes that someone loses his operating system installation file, simply because he formatted it when reinstalling the partition that contained the said image, or maybe he had a loss of data due to some event but he still has his installation key (that he had booted).

So, here we will see how to create an installation ISO file from a key that has been booted. For those who don’t know what an ISO file is, I will publish the article “How to reinstall your PC properly like an expert”.

For everything we’re going to talk about to be possible, you need to download PowerISO, because that’s the software we’ll be using here. But, I want to warn you that this software is not free, there is a trial version but it doesn’t manage images bigger than 700 MB, for the ISO images of an OS installation are much bigger than that. So it would be convenient to buy the software on its official site: Download PowerISO.If you already have it, run it.

The PowerISO home screen

This is the home screen of the software in the figure above. Don’t worry if you have downloaded it in a language that doesn’t suit you because it is multilingual. To change the display language, click on the menu Options > Language > Choose the language of your choice.

I’m not going to explain how the whole program works, we’ll just see how to recover an ISO file. Let’s go! First of all, you need a bootable USB stick, that is, one that the computer can boot from. Because we need all the system installation files.

Of course, if you are sure that you have all these files either on your disk in a folder (maybe you have copied them when you found out that you lost the image), you can use them without any problem.

To start, click on the Add button and then go to the directory where these files are located and select everything, without exception.

Before moving on, you need to be sure that all the files are there. To be sure, if it is a USB stick, it will have a special icon depending on the system it contains. Here is the icon of my key because I booted Windows 7 on it. For Windows, here are the files and folders that should generally be there:

As you can see, the key has the setup.exe file icon
After adding all the files (and folders) to your key, you need to save by pressing Save. You can do this in the location of your choice, and as a file type, choose Standard ISO.

Wait until the end of the registration process, it takes time because the file is large, for me it is more than 2 GB but recent versions of Windows go even beyond 4 GB. Once the process is finished, you will find the ISO file you saved. I don’t know if you’ve noticed but at the bottom of the window, it says non-bootable image. This means that you still can’t install (reinstall) a computer with the file you created.

How to make this file bootable and ready for installation?

Bootable ISO images have a special little file that contains the boot information, so this is what you need to add to make your image bootable. Let’s see how this is done. To have a boot information file there are two possibilities: either you get a floppy disk that contains this information, which is a bit complicated; and, the second possibility is to copy this file from another bootable image, and this is what we are going to do.

You may also like to know about How to create an executable file in command prompt (CMD) like a geek

Open with PowerISO another bootable file, which you have, provided that it is of the same OS, they can be different versions like Windows 8 and Windows 10 or 7; then click on Actions > Boot > Save Boot Information…; select a location and give a name then save. You will have a file with the extension “.bif”, this is the Boot information file.

I advise you to keep this file in a safe place, it will be of great help in case of another loss.
Go to the other image, the one we have created, and click on Actions > Boot > Add Boot Information…; a dialogue box will open, select the .bif file you have saved; after that, save your image again because it is already bootable, check, it has changed at the bottom of the window.

And there you have it:

That’s all! Thanks for reading this article, if you encounter any problems put them in the comments.

ShellPhish Termux tool to hack social media

ShellPhish is a powerful open-source tool that was designed for phishing attacks. Phishing attacks have become popular for both beginners and advanced attackers. AbirHasan created Shellphisher due to the need of beginners and made this tool easy to work for them.

Also, it contains some templates generated by another tool called SocialFish and offers phishing templates webpages for more than 10 popular sites such as:

  • Facebook
  • Instagram
  • Google
  • Microsoft
  • Netflix
  • Paypal
  • Twitter, also playstation
  • GitHub, also Twitch
  • And more other

List of available sites in ShellPhish

Then, as I said ShellPhish has more than 10 templates that we are going to list here. And also, the developer adds other templates on each update of ShellPhish.

ShellPhish v2.5-MOD

ShellPhish v2.5 is the updated version of this tool. Here we are going to list what is new for this version.

  • New login/phishing page
  • Traditional login page
  • Also, advanced voting poll login page
  • Fake security login page
  • Facebook messenger login page
  • Also, new sites were added, and 4 port forwarding options

What can you do with Shellphish?

Well, with ShellPhish you can create phishing pages of the most popular social networking websites and other popular websites. It is easy to use for creating a fake page in order to get sensitive information from victims.

also you might like to know about wifi hacking with airgeddon

What is Phishing attack?

Phishing is a type of social engineering where an attacker sends a fraudulent (“spoofed”) message designed to trick a human victim into revealing sensitive information to the attacker or to deploy malicious software on the victim’s infrastructure like ransomware.

Phishing attacks have become increasingly sophisticated and often transparently mirror the site being targeted, allowing the attacker to observe everything while the victim is navigating the site, and transverse any additional security boundaries with the victim.

Installation process

The installation of ShellPhish is quite simple, we are going to discuss how you can install it in both Termux and Linux.

Then, before we continue and see how we can get and install ShellPhish make sure you have Termux on your device. And if you have not yet installed termux don’t worry you can read our post about How to hack with your smartphone using termux. And for Linux users, you can read how to start with Kali Linux. best way to follow.

Then, after we have installed what is required, make sure you know some Linux commands. But if you don’t know you can read Basic Linux commands for beginners to advance.

How to install ShellPhish in Termux

Now, open the terminal and we are going first to update and upgrade termux packages by using the command:

apt update && upgrade

Then, once the process has finished we can now install git that will help us to clone Shellphish from Github. Also, you can skip this step if you have already git installed.

apt install git -y

Now, by using the git command we can get ShellPhsh from Github to our Termux. But before we do so we have first to install some ShellPhish dependencies to avoid errors during the installation process.

apt install git wget php unzip curl -y

Then, we can get Shellphish from Github in order to install it in termux by using the command.

git clone

Well done! we can now navigate into the Shellphish folder to install the tool cloned from Github. We are going to use the Basic Linux commands for beginners.

cd ShellPhish

Then, we are going the change the permission and install Shellphish by using the command.

chmod +x * && bash

Now we have installed Shell phish in Termux. if you followed all steps listed in this article, you will see this screen appear.

How to install Shellphish in Kali Linux?

Now, let us see how we can install Shellphish in Kali Linux. The first step we are going to navigate and move to Desktop with the command cd Desktop.

Then, when on the desktop we are going to create a folder where we will clone Shellphish. we can use the command mkdir shellphish

Now, we can navigate into shellphish file by using the command cd shellphish. Then we are going to clone shellphish from Github using the command.

git clone 

Finally, we are going to execute shellphish tool by using the command: ./ Also, know that for new kali Linux will ask you to run that command as root.

Note: This is version 1.8 if you want to update to version 2.5 just run the command bash

Legal disclaimer:

Usage of Shellphish for attacking targets without prior mutual consent is illegal. It’s the end user’s responsibility to obey all applicable local, state, and federal laws. This article is for education purposes only we assume no liability and are not responsible for any misuse or damage caused by this article

What is a Vpn, and why you need one.

Have you ever connected to a public Wi-Fi network and wondered if someone, somewhere might be able to see your online activity?. No one likes to be watched and tracked even if you have nothing to hide. That’s why you need to step up your privacy game. In this post, we are going to see few more reasons why you need a VPN.

Governments, advertisers, and even hackers may be trying to monitor your browsing history. Without a VPN, your internet service provider (ISP) could be recording your online activity and selling it to the highest bidder.

In our previous article, we discussed how to access the dark web safely, also the importance of using a VPN when accessing the dark web. And also we discussed how to use the Tor browser under a VPN. Now, if you are interested in accessing the dark web you should have a look at it.

What is a VPN?

VPN stands for “virtual private network” – a service that protects your internet connection and privacy online. It creates an encrypted tunnel for your data, protects your online identity by hiding your IP address, and allows you to use public Wi-Fi hotspots safely.

When using a VPN it encrypts your data and redirects it through a secure server. You can browse online and act as you normally would, but outside observers won’t be able to see what you’re doing or track your location.

Try NordVPN – save big and get 3 months FREE

30- day money back guarantee

Get secure and private access on internet

Get NordVPN today. Cancel anytime.

How does a VPN works?

VPNs essentially create a data tunnel between your local network and an exit node in another location, which could be thousands of miles away. Also, it makes it seem as if you’re in another place. This benefit allows online freedom, or the ability to access your favorite apps and websites while on the go.

When your VPN is on, your browsing data is encrypted. Also, are sent to a secure server, and decrypted, before being passed on to their original destination. Even if a hacker can intercept your data along the way, all they’d see would be code.

The good thing is that even your ISP won’t be able to monitor you. Using a VPN is a simple and effective way to maintain your privacy. Out of a VPN, your ISP can know your entire browsing history. A VPN service provider may have servers all over the world. That means your search activity could appear to originate at any one of them.

Also, keep in mind that Search engines also track your search history, but they’ll associate that information with an IP address that’s not yours. A VPN can hide a lot of information that can put your privacy at risk.

However, it’s helpful to know how a VPN works to understand the service better. Here is what is going on behind the scene:

  • When you connect to a VPN service, it authenticates your client with a VPN server.
  • The server then applies an encryption protocol to all the data you send and receive.
  • Then, the VPN service creates an encrypted “tunnel” over the internet. This secures the data traveling between you and your destination.
  • Also, to ensure each data packacket stays secure, a VPN wraps it in an outer packet, which is then encrypted through encapsulation. This is the core element of the VPN tunnel,keeping the data safe during transfer
  • When the data arrives at the server, the outer packet is removed through a decryption process.

Why do yo need a VPN?

As I said no one likes to be watched and tracked even if you think you have nothing to hide. Here are a few more reasons why you need a VPN:

To be safe when using public Wi-Fi regularly

A VPN is your best friend when using Wi-Fi. Hackers have many methods to steal your data on public hotspots, but the good news is that when using a VPN you can stop worrying about that. If you are among people who want to browse in full privacy you should use a VPN to secure your connection.

To mask your IP address and location

If someone captures your IP address he can also access your search history and also your location. Remember your IP address identifies your device over the internet. So, since you use a VPN it’s the IP address provided by the VPN which will be seen over the internet.

It will allow you to maintain your online privacy and search the web anonymously. Also, you will be protected against your search history gathered, viewed, or sold.

Access blocked content

One of the most popular things a VPN is used for is content access. If you are a fan of streaming services and social networks while abroad is important for you to use a VPN. using a VPN, will directly change your IP address and redirects your connection to the internet through a remote server.

Avoid tracking and surveillance

Government agencies track and collect your browsing activity, messages, social posts, and other private data. A VPN protects you from being tracked by encrypting your traffic and hiding your IP address.

What should you look for when choosing a VPN?

Speed, Security and Privacy

Choosing a VPN depends on your need but here I’m going to gives you general points. When you want to choose a VPN you have to ask yourself 3 questions before choosing a provider. How fast is it? will it keep my data safe? and will it respect my privacy? Of course, everyone needs safe connections and his data to stay private.

If a VPN doesn’t respect your privacy no need to use it, because the point of using a VPN is to protect your privacy, so it’s crucial that your VPN provider respects your privacy. Also, make sure that they never track or log your online activities.

Also, make sure to know if they do set data limits. Because depending on your internet usage, bandwidth may be a large deciding factor for you to make sure their services match your needs by checking to see if you’ll get full unmetered bandwidth without limits.

There are many points to consider when you’re choosing a VPN the job is for you to make sure you’re getting the right for your needs.

Why you should use a VPN at home?

You may ask yourself why you need a VPN at home and yet you are using your own Wi-Fi. But know that you do need one because it increases your protection and privacy online. Here are some ways you can use a VPN at your home:

  • Protect yourself against cybercrime

When using a VPN, you make it much harder for attackers to access your private information. Even if they target your device with routers hack or MITM attacks, they won’t be able to decrypt your data.

  • Bypass geographical restrictions

A good VPN provider will maintain servers across the globe. that means you can funnel your data through an IP address in another country, bypassing any local browsing restrictions.

  • Maintain personal privacy

Everyone has a right to privacy, both in the real world and online. But there’s no shortage of people and corporations who would like to get a look at your browsing activity. In fact, many ISPs are legally allowed to sell your data to corporations, advertisers, research bodies, and government agencies.

For all of the reasons we’ve mentioned here, we strongly recommend using a VPN, both at home and elsewhere.

In this article I feel happy to present you NordVPN one of good VPN i have never used. With NordVPN No need to buy VPN subscriptions separately for your phone and PC.

NordVPN secures up to 6 devices and is compatible with Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, and even your Wi-Fi router.

How to access the dark web safely and wisely

Accessing the dark web is easier than you might think. Google only indexes a tiny fraction of the internet. By some estimates, the web contains 500 times more content than what Google returns in search results.

To most users, the internet is what they experience through their email client and web browser every day, but there are a number of expansive services that operate in the background and the “web” is just one part of it. Behind that web browser, there are multiple layers that the average user may encounter tangentially or never. The three parts commonly used to divide the web are the Surface Web, the Dark Web, and the Deep Web.

What is the Surface Web, the Dark Web and the Deep web ?

People always get confused about these 3 terms. Then let us make it clear to avoid that confusion before dig into our topic.

Surface Web

is what users access in their regular day-to-day activity. It is available to the general public using standard search engines and can be accessed using standard web browsers that do not require any special configuration, such as Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft’s Internet Explorer or Edge, and Google Chrome.

Deep web

Hidden web or Deep web is the part of the World Wide Web whose that is not indexed by traditional Web Search engines like google, yahoo, and Bing. Also, it includes pages that were not indexed, fee-for-service sites, private databases, and the dark web.

Dark web

The dark web refers to encrypted online content that is not indexed by conventional search engines. Specific browsers, such as Tor Browser, are required to reach the dark web. Using the dark web often provides considerably more privacy than just using Tor to access the web.

What’s on the dark web?

The Dark web operates with a high degree of anonymity. It hosts safe activities and content as well as criminal ones.

For instance, one dark web website might provide complex riddles. Another might be a kind of book club that makes eBooks look more professional. Yet another might offer a forum for people who believe free speech is threatened

But the dark web is better known for dark content — meaning, illegal and sometimes disturbing content. For instance, here’s a sample of illegal things you can find on the dark web.

  • Stolen information
  • Illicit substances.
  • Disturbing and dangerous items.
  • Hacking services

Dark Web services

Darknet marketCommunicationsFile storageNews & document
Agora, AlphaBayBriar (software)Free
Atlantis, Black Market Cryptocat, ProtonMail,The Pirate BayBBC News
Dream Market, EvolutionRicochet (software)Freedom HostingDeepDotWeb
The Farmer’s Market, Hansa, Silk Road,Keybase, SIGAINTKickassTorrentsDeutsche Welle
Sheep Marketplace, Utopia TorChat, Tor MailRiseupDoxbin, Wikipedia
Operating SystemsDrop sitesNonprofit organizationSearch engines
Tails OS, Debian, Qubes OS GlobaLeaks, LjostCourage FoundationAhmia, DuckDuckGo
Social MediaSoftware
facebookcorewwwi.onion, The Hub, Dread, HackBBGuardian Project, Mailpile

How to access the dark web safely and wisely

To access the vast majority of the dark web, you’ll need a Tor browser. Tor browser is the best powerful anonymous browser is completely free and open-source software built around onion routing. The privacy browser Tor protects you by sending your internet traffic and communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world.

how to get and install Tor browser

Before we continue with this article, we have to get Tor and install it.

Tor Browser lets you surf both the surface web and the dark web. All your traffic is automatically routed through the Tor Network. Make sure you follow the link down to download and install the Tor Browser, as not to risk downloading malware, spyware, or some other virus to your device.

Required: How to get and install Tor browser for online privacy and anonymity

Get a VPN for additional security

Using the Tor browser won’t make you fully anonymous when surfing on the internet because Tor node IPs are public. Although websites can’t identify you and ISP’s cant’ decrypt your traffic, they can see that Tor is being used. Then when using a VPN, your ISP won’t be able to see that you are connected to a Tor node, only an encrypted tunnel to a VPN server.

What is a VPN?

VPN stands for “virtual private network” – a service that protects your internet connection and privacy online. It creates an encrypted tunnel for your data, protects your online identity by hiding your IP address, and allows you to use public Wi-Fi hotspots safely.

Use Tor over a VPN

Also, know that if you want a better surfering it will depend on your VPN. reason why in this article I feel happy to present you NordVPN one of good VPN i have never used. With NordVPN No need to buy VPN subscriptions separately for your phone and PC.

NordVPN secures up to 6 devices and is compatible with Windows, macOS, Linux, Android, iOS, and even your Wi-Fi router.

We have already discussed what a Tor browser is and what a VPN is, then let us see why you must use Tor in combination with a VPN. There are some reasons why Tor must be used in combination with a VPN.

  • When you are using Tor in combination with a VPN it gives you an extra layer of privacy because the VPN encryption prevents the Tor entry node from seeing your IP address.
  • The VPN will encrypt some internet traffic that Tor does not support, like ICMP traffic.
  • Also, prvents your ISP from knowing that you are connecting to Tor.
  • It also gives you access to onion sites like.

Although i suggest you to use a VPN over Tor, but know that the official Tor project advises against VPN over Tor. Then, know that both methods are superior to not using a VPN at all.

Browse wisely the dark web

If you browse the dark web, even if it’s just to check some information it’s a good idea to equip your device with trusted security software and keep it up to date. We already talked about using a VPN.

Here are a few tips and tools to help stay safe when browsing the dark web.

  • Trust your intuition: To avoid being scammed, you’ll want to protect yourself with smart behaviour on the web.
  • Detach your online personal from real life: your username, email adress, “real name,” password, and even your credit card should never be used anywhere else in your life
  • Employ active monitoring of identify and financial theft: Many online security services now offer identity protection for your safety. Be sure to take advantage of these tools if they are made available to you.
  • Explicity avoid dark web file downloads: Fear of walware infection is significantly higher in the lawless territory that is dark web.
  • Disable ActiveX and java in any available network settings: These frameworks are notorious for being probed and exploited by malicious parties.
  • Always restrict access to your Tor-enableddevice: Protect your children or other family members so they aren’t at risk of stumbling across something no one should ever see.

You may also like to know 6 best anonymous browsers

Shodan IoT search engine for cybersecurity professionals

what if you’re interested in measuring which countries are becoming more connected? Or if you want to know which version of Microsoft IIS is the most popular? Or you want to find the control servers for malware? Maybe a new vulnerability came out and you want to see how many hosts it could affect? Traditional web search engines don’t let you answer those questions. but shodan IoT will answer them.

What is Shodan IoT?

Shodan itself is a search engine for Internet-connected devices. Web search engines, such as Google and Bing, are great for finding websites. Also, let say that shodan is a search engine used to find Internet of Things (IoT) connected devices around the world.

How Shodan works

Shodan gathers information about all devices directly connected to the Internet. If a device is directly hooked up to the Internet then Shodan queries it for various publicly available information.

Also, the types of devices that are indexed can vary tremendously: ranging from small desktops up to nuclear power plants and everything in between. When using Shodan the information gained from Shodan services can be applied to many areas.

  • Network Security: keep an eye on all devices at your company that are facing the Internet
  • Market Research: find out which products people are using in the real-world
  • Cyber Risk: include the online exposure of your vendors as a risk metric
  • Internet of Things: tracking the growing usage of smart devices
  • Tracking Ransomware: measure how many devices have been impacted by ransomware

Shodan provides a platform that ensures accurate, consistent, and up-to-date information on Internet-facing devices.

Difference between Shodan IoT from Google

The most fundamental difference is that Shodan crawls the Internet whereas Google crawls the World Wide Web. However, the devices powering the World Wide Web only make up a tiny fraction of what’s actually connected to the Internet. Shodan’s goal is to provide a complete picture of the Internet.

Another difference with Google is that Shodan requires you to understand the search query syntax. For example, you can’t simply enter a power plant into Shodan and expect to get proper results.

Also, to get the most out of Shodan it’s important to understand the search query syntax.

How to use Shodan IoT

As you know already what shodan is. now let us see how you can navigate it by using its official website. We are going to discuss 4 services offers by Shodan.

  1. Main Shodan:
  2. Shodan Maps (membership required):
  3. Shodan Images (membership required):
  4. Command Line Shodan

All of the above websites access the same Shodan data but they’re designed with different use cases in mind.

you might like also Protection of online privacy with 6 best anonymous browser

Main Shodan IoT Search Engine

This is the first Shodan interface for accessing the data gathered.

By default, When you search something via Shodan search engine the search query will look at the data collected within the past 30 days. This means that the results you get from the website are recent and provide an accurate view of the Internet at the moment.

In addition to searching, Shodan gives you the possibility to download your search reports. Also you can create your report and with the functionality share you can share your report if needed.

Warning: Shared search queries are publicly viewable. Do not share queries that are sensitive or you don’t want others to know about.

Shodan Maps

Shodan Maps provides a way to explore search results visually instead of the text-based main website. It displays up to 1,000 results at a time and as you zoom in/ out Maps adjusts the search query to only show results for the area you’re looking at.

All search filters that work for the main Shodan website also work on Maps. From a technical perspective, Shodan Maps is the same as the main Shodan website except it automatically adds a geo filter to your search query to restrict search results to the area that you’re looking at on the map.

Also, you need a Shodan Membership account to use Shodan Maps services.

Shodan Images

For a quick way to browse all the screenshots that Shodan collects check out Shodan Images. It is a user-friendly interface around the has_screenshot filter and is one of the services that’s included with the Shodan Membership.

Also, the image data is gathered from 5 different sources:

  • VNC
  • Remote Desktop (RDP)
  • RTSP
  • Webcams
  • X Windows

Each image source comes from a different port/ service and therefor has a different banner. This means that if you only want to see images from webcams you could search for HTTP. To search for VNC you can search using RFB and for RTSP you simply search with RTSP.

The images can also be found using the main Shodan website or Shodan Maps by using the search query has_screenshot:true:

Installation of Shodan Command Line

The command-line interface (CLI) for Shodan is provided alongside the Python library. This means that you need to have Python installed on your computer in order to use the Shodan CLI. Once you have Python configured then you can run the following command to install the Shodan CLI:

pip install -U --user shodan

Also, to confirm that it was properly installed you can run the command:


It should return show you a list of possible sub-commands for the Shodan CLI

Linux tutorial for beginners – Linux guide in 2021

If you are reading this article it’s because you want to have a general idea about Linux. This article Linux tutorial for beginners is not only for beginners, but it can be also for advanced.

Also, we will explain to you the different elements of Linux that you ought to know about before you go and delve into the Linux world. In the previous article, we discuss the difference between Termux from Linux, because most Termux users are confused about that.

Linux tutorial for beginners

Linux has many benefits. However, it also has numerous little aspects that can leave you perplexed. In this Linux tutorial, we will start from the basics of Linux and learn all the major Linux concepts you should know. Also, the good news is that if you are having already the kills on these points you can read Basic Linux commands for beginners to advanced

  • What is Linux
  • Historic of Linux
  • Definition of Linux concepts
  • GNU Linux
  • Linux distributions
  • Open-source
  • Linux vs Windows
  • Why use Linux?
  • Servers vs Desktop
  • Linux Commands

What is Linux?

The first thing that we need to talk about is that Linux is an operating system. For those who do not know what an operating system is. OS is the software layer that is between your hardware, and the software that allows you to get something productive done on a computer.

Linux is an operating system that acts as an intermediary as a bridge between the physical device and the instruction code of the program. The main thing that you just need to realize is that in the Linux world, the software that you will be running is a completely different type compared to the one of Microsoft Windows.

Historic of Linux – Linux tutorial for beginners

Linux did not begin as an Operating system, however. Linux was a kernel created by Linus Torvalds while he was a student at the University of Helsinki. The kernel is essential but in itself, it is useless. It can only function in the context of a complete operating system.

The Linux kernel was used in combination with the GNU operating system. It is important to understand what the Kernel is as this is the defining component of Linux, we are going to see it in concept definition.

And, so between 1991 and 1994, Linus Torvalds created Linux operating system by combining the GNU OS with the Linux kernel. Basically, Linus Torvalds wanted an operating system that is not only free but also something that he can customize.

The big thing with Linux is, because it has a “UX” suffix and because most of the commands that you use look a lot like UNIX commands, people think that Linux is a type of UNIX operating system. This is totally not the case. UNIX is its own type of operating system. Linux is its own type of operating system.

Definition of Linux concepts

When we talk about Linux there are plenty of concepts that you must know. Here we are going to discuss some of them.

What is kernel?

Now, this is the time you are going to know what kernel is. The kernel is a computer program at the core of a computer’s operating system that has complete control over everything in the system.

There are two major types of kernels competing in today’s market: Windows and Unix-like Kernels. The Linux kernel falls under the latter as does BSD, Mac OS, and Solaris. Kernels tend to fall under three categories;

  • Micro kernel:  A micro kernel only manages what it has to CPU, Memory and IPC or Inter-process communications.
  • Monolithic kernel: like Linux are the opposite of Micro kernels
  • Hybrid: The Windows kernel falls into Hybrid because it has the ability to pick and choose what to run in both user and super user mode.  

Linux command Line Interface (LCLI)

The Linux command line is a text interface to your computer. Often referred to as the shell, terminal, it can give the appearance of being complex and confusing to use.

Operating system (OS)

 Also, an operating system (OS) is the system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

Linux Graphical Interface (LGUI)

A Linux GUI application or a Linux graphical Interface is basically that part you can interact with using your mouse, touchpad, or touch screen. You also, have icons and other visual prompts that you can activate with your mouse pointer to access the functionalities.

Terminal User Interface (TUI)

TUI is also known as a Text-based User Interface. This is the most uncommon term of the three.

Open-Source – Linux tutorial for beginners

Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

GNU Linux

As mentioned below, the most important part of an operating system is the kernel. In a GNU Linux system, Linux is the kernel component.

Because the Linux kernel alone does not form a working operating system, it’s better to use the term GNU Linux to refer to systems that many people can refer to as Linux.

Linux Distributions

Major companies and educational institutions like Linux. And since Linux is Open source, they are able to see the source code. This gives the ability to developers to start creating their own versions. And today, you have Red Hat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Google Android, Kali Linux, and many more. Making Linux source code available to the public facilitated the creation of something called distributions (distros).

Now when you want to decide which Linux distribution you want you use, you are going first to think about what you will be working with it. It is much important to know first your need before to choose which distribution you want to use before you install it on your pc. You can also look at our article 6 Best distribution of Linux mostly used by hackers.

Linux Distribution list.

  • Red hat: The last official release of the non-split distribution was Red Hat Linux 9 in March 2003.
  • CentOs: Community-supported Linux distribution designed as an Open-Source version of RHEL and well suited for servers
  • Fedora: Community-supported Linux distribution sponsored by Red Hat.
  • OpenSUSE: A community-developed Linux distribution, sponsored by SUSE.
  • Mandriva: Open-source distribution (with exceptions), discontinued in 2011.
  • Kali Linux: Developed by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing.
  • Parrot OS: A Linux distribution based on Debian used by penetration testers.

You may also like top 6 Best operating system linux for hacking and penetration testing

Open-source – Linux tutorial for beginners

Now that we have talked basically about the Historic of Linux, the next thing we have to talk about is Open source. Of course, at this point in time, you have probably heard of open-source software.

You are also probably under the wrong idea that open source software is free software. This is not the case. Open software is not free software. As I mentioned above open-source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

What is the difference between open source and other types of software?

Normal software

Some software has source code that only the developer or team who created it only can maintain and modify. Only the original authors of proprietary software can legally copy, inspect and modify that software.

And in order to use proprietary software, computer users must agree the terms of contract. The user must agree that he will not do anything with the software that the developer has not permitted. Microsoft Office is an example.


Then, know that open source software is different. Its authors make its source code available to others who would like to view that code, copy it, learn from it, change or share it. LibreOffice is an example.

Linux vs Windows – Linux tutorial for beginners

Now it’s time to see what the difference between windows and Linux is.

Windows is a group of several OS families and each of its versions GUI (graphical user interface) with a desktop that enables users to view folders and files in this OS. Below here is the picture which illustrates the comparison between Windows and Linux.

Why to use Linux?

The best assets of Linux when compared with other operating systems are its reliability, price, and the freedom it provides you. Now, it’s time for us to gain some knowledge about why you should use Linux OS.

  • Support programing language

Almost all programming languages (Ruby, Perl, Java, C/C++, Python, etc.) are supported by Linux. It also offers many applications that are useful for programming.

  • Open-source

You can add new features, delete things that you don’t like, and customize some features. You can customize it as you wish.

  • Stability

Linux systems are very stable and they won’t freeze up like other systems.

  • Security

Most viruses that attack an operating system are developed via the Active X software framework, and Linux doesn’t have this. The same principle applies to various other viruses like worms, Trojans, or spyware.

  • Free

Also you can download most Linux distributions freely from the web. Additionally, the Linux distributions can be downloaded freely and installed legally on any number of computers and can be given freely to other people.

Server vs Desktop

Now in this part we are going to see the difference between server versions to Desktop version. There are generally two versions of Linux that everybody is going to provide. Whether you get Kali Linux, Ubuntu, Fedora or whatever distribution that may be they will normally have two versions of distribution.

One is going to be the server version while the other is going to be the desktop version. The main difference between the server versions and the desktop versions of any of these Linux operating systems is that, the server version is a stripped down version of Linux. Also, the sever version has no graphical user interface that mean you will deal only with the command line.

Different from the Desktop version, when you install it you’ll immediately be able to navigate the operating system using the graphical user interface, much like Microsoft Windows.

You may also like how to install windows subsystem for linux complete guide

Linux command

This is the part where we are going to see some basics Linux command. With Linux command line you can install applications, update, start services etc…

Then, know that everything that will be showing in this article will be on kali Linux. You are free to use any distribution of your choice, but remember that some command will not work on other distros consider to make some research about the command if doesn’t work on your distribution.

Sudo:  basically it means “super user do”. In Linux you can’t login as Root, now to have access of what an admin can do you have to turn on a super user by using sudo command.

Man pages: it stands for manual pages. When you do not understand how a command works, the man page is where you look up information about command. $ Man ping.

Tasksel: it means “Task select” you can use this command to install an additional part of Linux distribution. $ sudo tasksel

Apt-get: This is the command that you use in Linux to install a given program. You don’t need to have a cd driver or a set up. $ sudo apt-get install hydra.

Top: if you are coming from windows world, think of top as a basically your task manger. With this command you will see how much your memory is being used, how much of your CPU is being used, and then list all process currently running on your system. $ sudo top to kill a process just type K the id of precess. $ K1578.

Directory manager

Cd: It stand for “Change directory” if you want to go to a different directory or folder, you type cd name of location. $ cd Desktop

Ls: if you want to list all the files and folders within a particular directory in this case consider to use $ ls.


There you have it. That is all there the basics of Linux. Again what we have mentioned in this article the only reason this is intimidating and the only reason anybody is nervous about this is that they do not know what commands to run. Once you understand the commands that you need to run, it all becomes easy.

How to install Windows Subsystem for Linux – complete Guide

source: from

Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) allows users to run a Linux terminal environment. Also, install packages from the Kali archive, and run Linux applications and workflows on Windows 10.

You may want to run Kali Linux or Ubuntu on your Windows 10. In this article, we are going to see how you can run Kali Linux or Ubuntu in Windows 10.

In the previous article we saw how to install kali Linux properly on your computer in 2021, now let us see how to run it on Windows 10.

What is Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)?

The Windows Subsystem for Linux lets developers run a GNU/Linux environment. Then, as you know already what is WSL now let us see what is WLS 2.

What is WSL 2?

WSL 2 is a new version of the Windows Subsystem for Linux architecture that powers the Windows Subsystem for Linux to run ELF64 Linux binaries on Windows. 

What are the prerequisites to Install Win-Kex?

First, let us see what are prerequisites before jump on installing Win-Kex.

To install Win-Kex you need to have Windows 10 version 2004 or higher running on your computer. Also, using windows Terminal.

You may also like How to install Kali NetHunter on an Android device.

Installation of Windows Subsystem for Linux

There are 2 options available for installing Windows Subsystem for linux (WSL):

  • Simplified install: The wsl –install simplified install command requires that you join the  Windows Insiders Program and install a preview build of Windows 10.
  • Manual install: It follows the six steps that will discuss in this article.

Also, if you run into an issue during installation, Windows provide the Troubleshooting installation.

In this article, we are going to discuss Manual Installation.

Install Kali Linux in Windows Subsystem on Linux 2

Step 1- Enable the Windows Subsystem for Linux.

In order to install Kali Linux, you must first enable the “Windows Subsystem for Linux”, then, open Windows PowerShell as administrator and run:

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart

Then, after running this command, Restart windows PowerShell, then reopen it again, and run:

Step 2 – Check requirements for running WSL 2

To update to WSL 2, you must be running Windows 10.

  • For x64 systems: Version 1903 or higher, with Build 18362 or higher.
  • For ARM64 systems: Version 2004 or higher, with Build 19041 or higher.
  • Builds lower than 18362 do not support WSL 2. Use the Windows Update Assistant to update your version of Windows.

To check your version and build number, select Windows + R type winver, select ok. or you can enter ver command in windows command prompt.

Step 3- Enable virtual Machine feature

Before installing WSL 2, you must enable the Virtual Machine Platform optional feature. Your machine will require virtualization capabilities to use this feature.

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:VirtualMachinePlatform /all /norestart

Then, Restart your machine to complete the WSL install update to WSL2.

Step – 4 Download the Linux Kernel update package

After you finished restarting your pc, then download and install the WSL2 Linux Kernel from here:

Step 5 – Set WSL 2 as your default version

Then open PowerShell as administrator and run:

wsl --set-default-version 2

Step 6 – Install your Linux distribution of choice

This last step is the installation of Kali Linux from the Microsoft Store. Also, to upgrade an existing WSL1 kali-linux installation, type: wsl --set-version kali-linux 2

After you have installed Kali Linux from Wicrosoft Store, Then run kali and finish the initial setup: set up your username and password

Install Win-Kex

kali@kali:~$ sudo apt update
kali@kali:~$ sudo apt install -y kali-win-kex

Refer to the Win-KeX Win usage documentation for further information.

How to install Tor browser for online Privacy

Tor browser

You may ask yourself, why should I start using the Tor browser for my online privacy and anonymity?  If you care about the protection of your information online you should read this.

You may find that if you are asking why to use Tor, the answer is simple. These days on the internet nothing is private, in fact, many websites are providing online privacy but is a joke and our private browsing data has been used for business purposes like advertising. We are been tracked by Google, by our government, and many data collectors.

What is Tor browser?

source: from tor-browser

Tor browser is the best powerful anonymous browser is completely free and open-source software built around onion routing. The privacy browser Tor protects you by sending your internet traffic and communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world.

Why should I use Tor browser?

Tor Browser uses the Tor network to protect your privacy and anonymity. Using the Tor network has two main properties:

  • Your internet service provider, and anyone watching your connection locally, will not be able to track your internet activity, including the names and addresses of the websites you visit.
  • The operators of the websites and services that you use, and anyone watching them, will see a connection coming from the Tor network instead of your real Internet (IP) address, and will not know who you are unless you explicitly identify yourself.

You may also like to know 6 best anonymous browsers

Tor Browser is designed to prevent websites from “fingerprinting” or identifying you based on your browser configuration. By default, Tor Browser does not keep any browsing history. Cookies are only valid for a single session (until Tor Browser is exited or a New Identity is requested).

  • BLOCK TRACKERS Tor Browser isolates each website you visit so third-party trackers and ads can’t follow you. Any cookies automatically clear when you’re done browsing. So will your browsing history.
  • DEFEND AGAINST SURVEILLANCE Tor Browser prevents someone watching your connection from knowing what websites you visit. All anyone monitoring your browsing habits can see is that you’re using Tor.
  • RESIST FINGERPRINTING Tor Browser aims to make all users look the same, making it difficult for you to be fingerprinted based on your browser and device information.
  • BROWSE FREELY With Tor Browser, you are free to access sites your home network may have blocked.

How does it work?

Tor is a network of virtual tunnels that allows you to improve your privacy and security on the Internet. Tor works by sending your traffic through three random servers (also known as relays) in the Tor network. The last relay in the circuit (the “exit relay”) then sends the traffic out onto the public Internet.

How to get Tor browser?

The best and simplest way to download Tor Browser is from the official Tor Project website at When you are downloading Tor to his official page your connection to the site will be secured using HTTPS, which makes it much harder for somebody to tamper with.

What if you can’t access it official page?

If you’re unable to download Tor Browser from the official Tor Project website, you can instead try downloading it from one of tor official mirrors, either through EFF, Calyx Institute, or CCC.

How to install?

Also, Tor browser is available for:

  •  Windows
  •  MacOs
  •  GNU/Linux
  •  Android

How to install Tor browser on windows?

Now it is time to install Tor once you have already downloaded the Tor browser for windows on Tor official download page.  Also, don’t forget that you must verify the file’s signature. When the download is complete, double-click the setup. Complete the installation wizard process.

First, Navigate to the Tor Browser download page.

Then, Download the Windows .exe file

When the download is complete, double click the .exe file.

Then, after you have run the Tor setup now you will select the language that can be better for you.

Now, you can select the destination folder where you want to install Tor

Then, you install and wait for the installation to finish

How to install Tor browser on MacOs?

Below we have seen how to install Tor on windows now it’s on MacOs when you have already downloaded the Tor browser on MacOs on Tor’s official download page.  Make sure you downloaded the macOS .dmg file. You must verify the file’s signature. When the download is complete, double-click the .dmg file. Complete the installation wizard process.

How to install Tor browser on GNUX/Linux?

Then when you have already downloaded the Tor browser for macOS on Tor’s official download page.  Make sure you downloaded the GNU/Linux .tar.xz file. You must verify the file’s signature. When the download is complete, extract the archive with the command tar -xf [TB archive] or by using an archive manager. 

You’ll need to tell your GNU/Linux that you want the ability to execute shell scripts from the graphical interface. Navigate to the newly extracted Tor Browser directory. Next right-click on start-tor-browser. Desktop, open Properties or Preferences and change the permission to allow executing file as a program.

Double-click the icon to start up Tor Browser for the first time. Alternatively, from inside the Tor Browser directory, you can also start from the command line by running: ./start-tor-browser.desktop

How to install tor browser on android?

Go on the play store and search for tor browser you will get it.


If you are in a country where Tor is blocked, you can configure Tor to connect to a bridge during the setup process. Select “Tor is censored in my country.” If Tor is not censored, one of the most common reasons Tor won’t connect is an incorrect system clock. Please make sure it’s set correctly. for more information about tor browser follow its official page

How to download videos with – Videos downloader by geniusclub

you may be in need to download your favorite music on youtube here is the solution. is the most popular video hosting and the third most popular website in the world. its functionality is limited whenever you try to download YouTube videos for free. You can save only a small number of videos and audio by using common methods. offers the fastest way of Youtube video download in mp3, mp4, SQ, HD, Full HD quality, plus a wide range of formats for free. It’s the most convenient YouTube downloader you’ve ever tried! Save one video or song to your pc or mobile and see it for yourself!

How to proceed

With you can download video with it online video downloader or by adding addons in your browser

First, open Youtube video download website and enter the video’s URL to the corresponding field, at the top of the page. by tgeniusclub

You may also like Best android apps termux learner from play store

Once you have opened savefromm , then click on “Download” button, and you’ll see the list with all available links. Now click on it, then it will ask you to choose the format you desire .

Then, if you chose the format desired now press on download.

The following step, go on your download list or press ctrl + j and you will see all your downloaded files.

Also, you can download app and use it on your phone.

How to download youtube video by installing an add-ons in your browser

First, Once you’ve installed the Youtube downloader app on mac or pc, you’ll see “Download” button below each video offering to save HD or mp3.

you may like Best android apps to learn programming

Then click on the gray arrow on the right of the Download button in order to choose the preferred format.

You may also like Best browser for privacy

Next, use ctr+j to open the download files.

You may also like how to install Kali nethunter on android

closing word

Congratulation you have reached the end of the guide. hope now you know how to download youtube video using Now you can enjoy the videos and playlists offline! Works in Chrome, Firefox, or any other browser.