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Basic Linux Commands for Beginners to Advanced

Dear friends, the big day has finally arrived. If you are reading basic Linux commands for beginners I suppose that you have already read our previous article, Linux tutorial for beginners, and if not yet I suggest you have a look at it in order to be on the same level otherwise continue reading. You will get the chance to write your first command in the console! Okay, not too stressed?

I assure you, we will start with simple things to become familiar with the console. We’ll really see the ABC, the basic survival guide of kits.

Basic Linux Commands for beginners

Then, let us see what this article is going to cover.

  • First Commands on Linux command Line
  • Understand Super User on Linux
  • Commands & parameters
  • File operation Commands
  • Directory Commands
  • account manager commands
  • Permission Commands
  • System Command
  • Networking commands

What is the Linux shell?

Before we continue let me remind you what a Linux shell is. A Linux shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional user interface for the Linux operating system and for Linux-like systems. The shell understands plenty of shell commands and their options which change their action. The typical syntax of shell command looks like this: command –option argument (parameter).

In our previous article, we saw the history of Linux and other things, we also discussed Linux distributions and I’m very sure you have chosen what you found the best for you. Also, if you weren’t able to choose a distribution of your choice, you might find this article interesting for you, the top 6 best Linux operating systems for hacking and penetration testing.

First basics Linux commands for Beginners.

Then, the time of testing your first command is now; open your Linux command line to write your first command. Also, know that for my side I use Kali Linux and all command you will find on this article was tested on kali.

This is a command prompt. It is a message that prompts you to enter a command by giving you at the same time a lot of information. This command prompt is displayed before each command you type. 

Now let us explain something about what you are seeing in command line.

Anonymous: The first element is your nickname. This is the user name under which you are logged. Indeed, know that you can create multiple user accounts on Linux

@: This symbol indicates nothing special. It’s the symbol “at’”.

DESKTOP-4312L0R: That’s the name of the computer on which you are working. In my case it’s called DESKTOP-4312L0R, but I could give any name during OS installation.

~: That’s the folder where you currently are. You can also navigate folder to folder in the console and it’s very useful that you always be reminded where you are before each command.

$: Also, that symbol is very important, because it shows you your authority level. This symbol means you are currently a normal user with limited rights. If you are curious and you want to know why limited rights read the previous post about Linux tutorial for beginners-Linux guide in 2021.

Tasksel: This is a command to install some additional Linux components.

Understand Super User in Linux

In this part, we are going to see who is a root. Then, let us see what really Superuser means. know that in some distribution of Linux you are not allowed to log in as a superuser because of the security matters, the reason why by default Linux let you log in as a normal user.

Then, once you have log in, you can now run commands as a root but first, you have to run the command sudo su, and then it will ask you to confirm with the password. When typing a password it won’t show if you are typing, but if you write the right password confirm with the button enter. 

$: This symbol means you are currently using a user “normal” account with limited rights (he cannot change the most important system files).

Also, if the symbol is “#” that mean you are in super user mode. That is to say, you are connected under the pseudonym “root”.The root is the master who has the right to do everything on the computer he can even run harmful commands.

parameters & Basic Linux Commands .

Command: It is a directive to a computer program acting as an interpreter of some kind, in order to perform a specific task. In Linux when you are typing command you are ordering the terminal to execute task for you.

Example: mkdir genius – here you ask the computer to create a folder named genius.

Parameters: Parameters are options that are written after the command. The command and parameters are separated by a space. The parameters themselves can contain spaces, letters, numbers … a bit of everything, really. There is no real rule on how the settings, but fortunately programmers have adopted a sort of “agreement” so that we can recognize the different types of parameters.

Also, know that there are two differents of parameters.

  • Short parameters: The most common parameters are constituted by a single letter preceded by a dash. For instance: -d, –l, –a.

If you have to give several parameters, you can do it like this: -d, –a, –U, –h. Also, you have to know that each parameter has different meanings.

  • Long parameters: The parameters consist of several letters are preceded by two dashes like this: –all, –version, –help

Commands and parameters Examples

Then, let’s have a further look about the commands and their parameters.

  1. Su –l: switch user, (su:  login as the root super user and –l: is a parameter meaning “login”).
  2. Ls a: list all contents, (ls: list content and –a: is a parameter meaning “all contents”.
  3. rm -ri genius: (rm: removes a file or a directory, ri: is a parameter meaning remove a non-empty directory and its contents, and genius is the name of the directory to remove.)
  4. usermod -l anonymous genius: (usermod: modify an existing user account, -l: is a parameter meaning “login name change”, anonymous: is the old user name, and genius: is the new user name we want to set).
  5. whoami: shows the current user name, the output is “Anonymous”

File operation Basic Linux Commands

Then, let discuss how we can manage files on CL. Managing files on the Linux command line is not as complicate as beginners may think.

  • cp myfile/genius: the command cp: copy, myfile: is the name of file you want to copy, and genius: is the directory where you want to copy myfile.
  • mv myfile/genius: mv: command to move a file, myfile: is the name of file you want to move, and genius: is the directory where you want to move myfile.
  • rm genius: rm: command to remove a file or directory, and genius: name of the file you want to remove. Also, you can use –ri as parameters if you want to remove a directory with all its contents.
  • wc myfile.txt: This is a command to count words on a given file. wc: show word count, and myfile.txt: Name and extension of the file.
  • lpr myfile.txt: the command of sending the myfile.txt to the printer. lpq command help to display the print queue
  • diff myfile1.txt myfile2.txt: the command diff: show the differences between two files, myfile1.txt: is the file to compare to myfile2.txt.
  • cmp file1.text file2.txt: this is the command to compare two files byte by byte.
  • Md5sum myfile.txt: this command will create an md5 checksum number. Output: f7tkgu5orj1fjt8kelc2os95nd57jf8r myfile2.txt.
  • grep hacking myfile.txt: the command grep: show all lines that contain “hacking” string. It shows a specified string.
  • egrep excellent myfile.txt: It seems similar with grep but the difference is that this command show the unique lines in the file.
  • look ab: this command show words matching a given prefix. The output will be: aba,abb,abc,abd…

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Directory basic Linux commands for beginners

Also, you may find that managing directories is simple as a beginner. Then, in this part we won’t see many commands but you can do research to get more.

  • mkdir genius: this command hell to create a new directory with the name genius.
  • rmdir genius: help to remove an empty directory. That mean you ask to the CL to remove the directory genius.
  • zip myfile.txt: this file help to compress a file to zipe format.
  • unzip myfile.zip: Also, this command help to unzip a file from zip format.

Account manager Commands

Let us see how we can manage users accounts using Command line.

  • useradd username: add a new user account.
  • usermod -l oldname newname: Also, help to change the username.
  • userdel username: this command help to delete a user account.
  • passwd username: set a user account password

permission basic Linux commands

  • chmod 752 myfile.txt: the command chmod: change the mode of access permission for myfile1.txt, 7: set user permission with write, read, execute, 5: set group permission with read, execute, 2: set others permission with write only.
  • chgrp groupname myfile.txt: chgrp: change group membership of a file. Also, groupname is the name of a given group if you created a group.
  • chown username myfile2.txt: the command chown: change ownership of myfile2.txt.

System basic Linux commands

  • job: this command displays the status of all jobs.
  • fg: Also, this command run a suspended job in foreground.
  • bg: run a suspended job in background
  • kill %4: this command kill a job by number or a process by pid
  • at 9:30 pm: Also, this command help to schedule a job run at a specified time. You can also display the scheduled jobs wit at command, and if you want remove a schedule use atrm command.
  • uptime: It also shows the system uptime.
  • top: Also, help to view the top active or specified process.
  • tar -xf archive.tar: it also help to extract an archived tar file.
  • tar -cf archive.tar: create an archived tar file
  • date: also, help to display the date and time.
  • cal: it also help to display a calendar of month.
  • df: This command help to show disk usage of file system

Networking commands

  • host tgeniusclub.com: display remote hostname and IP
  • ifconfig: Also, display local network configuration
  • ping -c3 tgeniusclub.com: it also send packets to test if remote is reacheable
  • ssh: securely connect to a remote computer ftp: files transfer by “File Transfer Protocol”
  • mesg: it also enable or disable messaging
  • write: write a messages to other users
  • open: it help to connect to an ftp server
  • mail: Also, send and receive mails locally and globally.
  • dhclient: provides a means for configuring one or more network interfaces
  • nslookup: query internet name servers interactively for IP information.

Conclusion

Well done, this article was only for basic Linux commands hope now you are able to use your CL. If you want to know more about a command just use command man “name of command””

How to install Onex best termux hacking tool

“Onex best termux hacking tool library.” Onex is a kali Linux hacking tools installer for termux and other Linux distribution. Also, it is a package manager for hackers. Onex manages more than 370+ hacking tools that can be installed with a single click. Use command to install any hacking tool. Also, it has the same parameters as Tool-X.

Who can install Onex best termux hacking tool?

Now, let us see who can install and use the Onex tool. you can different Operating System. we have seen that most Termux users are having confusion about the difference between Linux with Termux. Also, if you are one of them you should read what is the difference between Termux from Linux. Here is the list of the support operating system.

  • Android: (you should have to install Termux App.)
  • Linux: (Linux Based Systems)

How to install Onex hacking tool?

Then, as you already know what is Onex, and who can install it, let us see how to install it. Now, open your Termux, the first thing to do is to update packages.

  • apt update: this is the command to update Termux packages. Also, you can upgrade.
  • apt install git: This is the command to install git in order to clone Onex from Github.
  • git clone https://github.com/rajkumardusad/onex.git
  • cd onex: Here you move in onex directory.
  • chmod +x onex/install: change the permission of install.
  • sh onex/install if not work then use ./onex/install

How to use Onex hacking tool?

Now, you may say I already know what is onex, and also know how to install it. But the question of how can I use onex still be there. Let us answer that question. Onex is very simple and easy to use, it’s available in both CLS and manual mode.

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Command Line Mode (CLI Mode)

If you would like to have help about commands just type onex -h or onex help.

Here is some onex commands:

  • onex install [tool name]: This command helps you to install any onex tool.
  • onex search [tool name]: Also, this command help to search any onex tool.
  • use onex list: to list all onex tools available. You can use also, onex -l -a list.
  • NB: for more commands don’t hesitate to use onex -h.

Onex Menu mode

That was the first mode which you can use, also let us see the second step which is Menu mode. when you open onex you will face the first page which is the menu. Then, to navigate through that menu you will be using a number to choose your preference.

  • (1): Used to see all available tools then type the number of the tool to install it.
  • (2): Also, use 2 to show the tools category.
  • (3): Used if you want to update onex.
  • (4): If you want the page about us.
  • (5): to exit the tool.

Warning and conclusion

Now you are able to install and use onex app, with this app you can do many things. Also, you have to know that we are not responsible for any misuse or damage caused by this program. use this tool at your own risk!

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Linux tutorial for beginners – Linux guide in 2021

If you are reading this article it’s because you want to have a general idea about Linux. This article Linux tutorial for beginners is not only for beginners, but it can be also for advanced.

Also, we will explain to you the different elements of Linux that you ought to know about before you go and delve into the Linux world. In the previous article, we discuss the difference between Termux from Linux, because most Termux users are confused about that.

Linux tutorial for beginners

Linux has many benefits. However, it also has numerous little aspects that can leave you perplexed. In this Linux tutorial, we will start from the basics of Linux and learn all the major Linux concepts you should know. Also, the good news is that if you are having already the kills on these points you can read Basic Linux commands for beginners to advanced

  • What is Linux
  • Historic of Linux
  • Definition of Linux concepts
  • GNU Linux
  • Linux distributions
  • Open-source
  • Linux vs Windows
  • Why use Linux?
  • Servers vs Desktop
  • Linux Commands

What is Linux?

The first thing that we need to talk about is that Linux is an operating system. For those who do not know what an operating system is. OS is the software layer that is between your hardware, and the software that allows you to get something productive done on a computer.

Linux is an operating system that acts as an intermediary as a bridge between the physical device and the instruction code of the program. The main thing that you just need to realize is that in the Linux world, the software that you will be running is a completely different type compared to the one of Microsoft Windows.

Historic of Linux – Linux tutorial for beginners

Linux did not begin as an Operating system, however. Linux was a kernel created by Linus Torvalds while he was a student at the University of Helsinki. The kernel is essential but in itself, it is useless. It can only function in the context of a complete operating system.

The Linux kernel was used in combination with the GNU operating system. It is important to understand what the Kernel is as this is the defining component of Linux, we are going to see it in concept definition.

And, so between 1991 and 1994, Linus Torvalds created Linux operating system by combining the GNU OS with the Linux kernel. Basically, Linus Torvalds wanted an operating system that is not only free but also something that he can customize.

The big thing with Linux is, because it has a “UX” suffix and because most of the commands that you use look a lot like UNIX commands, people think that Linux is a type of UNIX operating system. This is totally not the case. UNIX is its own type of operating system. Linux is its own type of operating system.

Definition of Linux concepts

When we talk about Linux there are plenty of concepts that you must know. Here we are going to discuss some of them.

What is kernel?

Now, this is the time you are going to know what kernel is. The kernel is a computer program at the core of a computer’s operating system that has complete control over everything in the system.

There are two major types of kernels competing in today’s market: Windows and Unix-like Kernels. The Linux kernel falls under the latter as does BSD, Mac OS, and Solaris. Kernels tend to fall under three categories;

  • Micro kernel:  A micro kernel only manages what it has to CPU, Memory and IPC or Inter-process communications.
  • Monolithic kernel: like Linux are the opposite of Micro kernels
  • Hybrid: The Windows kernel falls into Hybrid because it has the ability to pick and choose what to run in both user and super user mode.  

Linux command Line Interface (LCLI)

The Linux command line is a text interface to your computer. Often referred to as the shell, terminal, it can give the appearance of being complex and confusing to use.

Operating system (OS)

 Also, an operating system (OS) is the system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

Linux Graphical Interface (LGUI)

A Linux GUI application or a Linux graphical Interface is basically that part you can interact with using your mouse, touchpad, or touch screen. You also, have icons and other visual prompts that you can activate with your mouse pointer to access the functionalities.

Terminal User Interface (TUI)

TUI is also known as a Text-based User Interface. This is the most uncommon term of the three.

Open-Source – Linux tutorial for beginners

Open source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

GNU Linux

As mentioned below, the most important part of an operating system is the kernel. In a GNU Linux system, Linux is the kernel component.

Because the Linux kernel alone does not form a working operating system, it’s better to use the term GNU Linux to refer to systems that many people can refer to as Linux.

Linux Distributions

Major companies and educational institutions like Linux. And since Linux is Open source, they are able to see the source code. This gives the ability to developers to start creating their own versions. And today, you have Red Hat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Google Android, Kali Linux, and many more. Making Linux source code available to the public facilitated the creation of something called distributions (distros).

Now when you want to decide which Linux distribution you want you use, you are going first to think about what you will be working with it. It is much important to know first your need before to choose which distribution you want to use before you install it on your pc. You can also look at our article 6 Best distribution of Linux mostly used by hackers.

Linux Distribution list.

  • Red hat: The last official release of the non-split distribution was Red Hat Linux 9 in March 2003.
  • CentOs: Community-supported Linux distribution designed as an Open-Source version of RHEL and well suited for servers
  • Fedora: Community-supported Linux distribution sponsored by Red Hat.
  • OpenSUSE: A community-developed Linux distribution, sponsored by SUSE.
  • Mandriva: Open-source distribution (with exceptions), discontinued in 2011.
  • Kali Linux: Developed by Offensive Security and designed for penetration testing.
  • Parrot OS: A Linux distribution based on Debian used by penetration testers.

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Open-source – Linux tutorial for beginners

Now that we have talked basically about the Historic of Linux, the next thing we have to talk about is Open source. Of course, at this point in time, you have probably heard of open-source software.

You are also probably under the wrong idea that open source software is free software. This is not the case. Open software is not free software. As I mentioned above open-source software is software with source code that anyone can inspect, modify, and enhance.

What is the difference between open source and other types of software?

Normal software

Some software has source code that only the developer or team who created it only can maintain and modify. Only the original authors of proprietary software can legally copy, inspect and modify that software.

And in order to use proprietary software, computer users must agree the terms of contract. The user must agree that he will not do anything with the software that the developer has not permitted. Microsoft Office is an example.

     Open-source

Then, know that open source software is different. Its authors make its source code available to others who would like to view that code, copy it, learn from it, change or share it. LibreOffice is an example.

Linux vs Windows – Linux tutorial for beginners

Now it’s time to see what the difference between windows and Linux is.

Windows is a group of several OS families and each of its versions GUI (graphical user interface) with a desktop that enables users to view folders and files in this OS. Below here is the picture which illustrates the comparison between Windows and Linux.

Why to use Linux?

The best assets of Linux when compared with other operating systems are its reliability, price, and the freedom it provides you. Now, it’s time for us to gain some knowledge about why you should use Linux OS.

  • Support programing language

Almost all programming languages (Ruby, Perl, Java, C/C++, Python, etc.) are supported by Linux. It also offers many applications that are useful for programming.

  • Open-source

You can add new features, delete things that you don’t like, and customize some features. You can customize it as you wish.

  • Stability

Linux systems are very stable and they won’t freeze up like other systems.

  • Security

Most viruses that attack an operating system are developed via the Active X software framework, and Linux doesn’t have this. The same principle applies to various other viruses like worms, Trojans, or spyware.

  • Free

Also you can download most Linux distributions freely from the web. Additionally, the Linux distributions can be downloaded freely and installed legally on any number of computers and can be given freely to other people.

Server vs Desktop

Now in this part we are going to see the difference between server versions to Desktop version. There are generally two versions of Linux that everybody is going to provide. Whether you get Kali Linux, Ubuntu, Fedora or whatever distribution that may be they will normally have two versions of distribution.

One is going to be the server version while the other is going to be the desktop version. The main difference between the server versions and the desktop versions of any of these Linux operating systems is that, the server version is a stripped down version of Linux. Also, the sever version has no graphical user interface that mean you will deal only with the command line.

Different from the Desktop version, when you install it you’ll immediately be able to navigate the operating system using the graphical user interface, much like Microsoft Windows.

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Linux command

This is the part where we are going to see some basics Linux command. With Linux command line you can install applications, update, start services etc…

Then, know that everything that will be showing in this article will be on kali Linux. You are free to use any distribution of your choice, but remember that some command will not work on other distros consider to make some research about the command if doesn’t work on your distribution.

Sudo:  basically it means “super user do”. In Linux you can’t login as Root, now to have access of what an admin can do you have to turn on a super user by using sudo command.

Man pages: it stands for manual pages. When you do not understand how a command works, the man page is where you look up information about command. $ Man ping.

Tasksel: it means “Task select” you can use this command to install an additional part of Linux distribution. $ sudo tasksel

Apt-get: This is the command that you use in Linux to install a given program. You don’t need to have a cd driver or a set up. $ sudo apt-get install hydra.

Top: if you are coming from windows world, think of top as a basically your task manger. With this command you will see how much your memory is being used, how much of your CPU is being used, and then list all process currently running on your system. $ sudo top to kill a process just type K the id of precess. $ K1578.

Directory manager

Cd: It stand for “Change directory” if you want to go to a different directory or folder, you type cd name of location. $ cd Desktop

Ls: if you want to list all the files and folders within a particular directory in this case consider to use $ ls.

Conclusion

There you have it. That is all there the basics of Linux. Again what we have mentioned in this article the only reason this is intimidating and the only reason anybody is nervous about this is that they do not know what commands to run. Once you understand the commands that you need to run, it all becomes easy.

Graphical Environment on Termux

In this article, we are going to see how we can install Graphical Environment on termux. Then, you may ask yourself what is the graphical environment.

A graphics environment file contains commands that specify exactly how a graph is produced.

Termux provides support for programs that use X Window System. However, there no hardware acceleration for rendering, and the user will have to install a third-party application to view the graphical output. Before we continue let us see some definitions of keywords that we are going to use in this article.

What is X Window System?

The X Window System is a network-transparent window system that runs on a wide range of computing and graphics machines. X Window System servers run on computers with bitmap displays. The X server distributes user input to and accepts output requests from several client programs through a variety of different inter-process communication channels. Also, the most common case is for the client on networking and remote applications.

What is a VNC viewer?

VNC® Viewer turns your phone into a remote desktop, giving you instant access to your Mac, Windows, and Linux computers. You can view your computer’s desktop remotely, and control its mouse and keyboard as though you were sitting down in front of it.

Who can run Graphical Environment on Termux?

Then, as you know already keywords, let us see who can run Graphical Environment on termux. Termux is a free app that everyone who has an android device can get from the play store.

in the previous article, we discussed Best android apps Termux learner in 2021 from play store. You can see in that article the best apps that will teach you termux command and discover the best apps for hacking.

First, if you don’t have termux download it from the play store. last it’s applicable only to Termux installations running on Android 7.0 or higher

Enabling the X11 Repository – Graphical Environment on Termux

To use X11-enabled programs, please, make sure that at least one of the following programs is installed. In this article we are going to use VNC Viewer:

  • VNC Viewer – the best choice for interacting with the graphical environment. Requires a running VNC server.
  • XServer XSDL – this one may be unstable but it provides a standalone Xorg server so you don’t have to set up VNC.

Also, know that X11 packages are available in a separate APT repository. You can enable it by running the following command:

pkg install x11-repo

this command will automatically add appropriate sources.list file and PGP key.

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Setting up VNC Viewer – Graphical Environment on Termux

Server

As we said we are going to use VNC Viewer in this post then, let us configure it for the graphical output.

  • Install tigervnc in termux.
pkg install tigervnc
  • After, installation you can now execute tigervnc with this command :
vncserver -localhost

At first time, you will be prompted for setting up passwords. Then, set your password must be 6 or 8 characters and  passwords are not visible when you are typing them.

Then, after you finish to set up your password, if everything is okay you will see this:

It means that X (vnc) server is available on display ‘localhost:2’. Finally, to make programs do graphical output to the display ‘localhost:1’, set environment variable like shown here (yes, without specifying ‘localhost’):

Check if the VncServer is running or not. if it’s not running go back on previous step.

Client

Now it’s time to install VNC Viewer from the playstore. Then, if you have finished to install VNC Viewer, open it and start configuration.

Now in the Address field Type localhost:1, Remember next time you run the server you need to change the localhost to 2 or 3. or You can type vncserver -list and you can see your localhost number there.

Next, press create and it will create the connexion with your termux. Then, In the next step click on the green button and last click on the name of your connection.

Then, press ok to allow connection.

Now the time of puting your authenfication is there. put the password you set in the previous step.

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Window Managers

Then, as we have configured the connection let us see how to manage the window. Also, the Simplest way to get a working graphical environment is to install Fluxbox:

$ pkg install fluxbox

Then, if you want you can set fluxbox to started automatically on VNC server startup. To do this, edit file ~/.vnc/xstartup.

Desktop environment (XFCE)

Also, It is possible to set up a full-blown desktop environment in Termux. Only XFCE is supported, porting of other environments is not being planned. Now let us see how to install XFCE.

pkg install xfce4
VNC server startup configuration (~/.vnc/xstartup)
#!/data/data/com.termux/files/usr/bin/sh
xfce4-session & 

Conclusion

Hope now you are having Graphical Environment on your termux, if there is an issue during installation let us know to help you solve that issue. thanks

How to install Windows Subsystem for Linux – complete Guide

source: from kali.org

Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL) allows users to run a Linux terminal environment. Also, install packages from the Kali archive, and run Linux applications and workflows on Windows 10.

You may want to run Kali Linux or Ubuntu on your Windows 10. In this article, we are going to see how you can run Kali Linux or Ubuntu in Windows 10.

In the previous article we saw how to install kali Linux properly on your computer in 2021, now let us see how to run it on Windows 10.

What is Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)?

The Windows Subsystem for Linux lets developers run a GNU/Linux environment. Then, as you know already what is WSL now let us see what is WLS 2.

What is WSL 2?

WSL 2 is a new version of the Windows Subsystem for Linux architecture that powers the Windows Subsystem for Linux to run ELF64 Linux binaries on Windows. 

What are the prerequisites to Install Win-Kex?

First, let us see what are prerequisites before jump on installing Win-Kex.

To install Win-Kex you need to have Windows 10 version 2004 or higher running on your computer. Also, using windows Terminal.

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Installation of Windows Subsystem for Linux

There are 2 options available for installing Windows Subsystem for linux (WSL):

  • Simplified install: The wsl –install simplified install command requires that you join the  Windows Insiders Program and install a preview build of Windows 10.
  • Manual install: It follows the six steps that will discuss in this article.

Also, if you run into an issue during installation, Windows provide the Troubleshooting installation.

In this article, we are going to discuss Manual Installation.

Install Kali Linux in Windows Subsystem on Linux 2

Step 1- Enable the Windows Subsystem for Linux.

In order to install Kali Linux, you must first enable the “Windows Subsystem for Linux”, then, open Windows PowerShell as administrator and run:

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:Microsoft-Windows-Subsystem-Linux /all /norestart

Then, after running this command, Restart windows PowerShell, then reopen it again, and run:

Step 2 – Check requirements for running WSL 2

To update to WSL 2, you must be running Windows 10.

  • For x64 systems: Version 1903 or higher, with Build 18362 or higher.
  • For ARM64 systems: Version 2004 or higher, with Build 19041 or higher.
  • Builds lower than 18362 do not support WSL 2. Use the Windows Update Assistant to update your version of Windows.

To check your version and build number, select Windows + R type winver, select ok. or you can enter ver command in windows command prompt.

Step 3- Enable virtual Machine feature

Before installing WSL 2, you must enable the Virtual Machine Platform optional feature. Your machine will require virtualization capabilities to use this feature.

dism.exe /online /enable-feature /featurename:VirtualMachinePlatform /all /norestart

Then, Restart your machine to complete the WSL install update to WSL2.

Step – 4 Download the Linux Kernel update package

After you finished restarting your pc, then download and install the WSL2 Linux Kernel from here: https://aka.ms/wsl2kernel.

Step 5 – Set WSL 2 as your default version

Then open PowerShell as administrator and run:

wsl --set-default-version 2

Step 6 – Install your Linux distribution of choice

This last step is the installation of Kali Linux from the Microsoft Store. Also, to upgrade an existing WSL1 kali-linux installation, type: wsl --set-version kali-linux 2

After you have installed Kali Linux from Wicrosoft Store, Then run kali and finish the initial setup: set up your username and password

Install Win-Kex

kali@kali:~$ sudo apt update
kali@kali:~$ sudo apt install -y kali-win-kex

Refer to the Win-KeX Win usage documentation for further information.

How to use John the Ripper: Password cracker.

John the Ripper is an Open Source password security auditing and password recovery tool available for many operating systems.

Many people are asking this question, “How can I crack any password”. But let me tell you that if you are reading this post don’t worry you are in a good place. In this article, we are going to dive into John the Ripper (JtR), you will see how it work and explain to you why it’s important to use it.

In the previous article, we have seen how to install and start with Kali Linux. Now in this article, we are going to see how to start with John the Ripper and to use it. Then first let us see what is John the Ripper.

What is John the Ripper?

First, you have to know that John the Ripper is an Open Source password security auditing and password recovery tool available for many operating systems. It is designed to be both feature-rich and fast. It combines several cracking modes in one program and is fully configurable for your particular needs.

John the Ripper is available for several different platforms which enables you to use the same cracker everywhere. Also, It can support hundreds of hash and cipher types.

How can I get John the Ripper?

This is an amazing question that people may ask because after knowing what is John the Ripper, the next question must be how to get it. Now as you know what is John the Ripper let us see how to get it.

from John the Ripper official site

As I mentioned before John the Ripper is free and Open Source software, distributed primarily in source code form. If you would rather use a commercial product, please consider John the Ripper Pro, which is distributed primarily in the form of “native” packages for the target operating systems and in general is meant to be easier to install and use while delivering optimal performance.

Now, you can download John the Ripper on Linux, macOS, Windows, and Android on its official page Openwall.com/john. You must verify the authenticity and integrity of your John the Ripper downloads to make sure you downloaded a good one. Once you visit the official page you will get more information about that.

John the Ripper is available on Kali Linux as part of their password cracking metapackages.

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What is John the Ripper is used for?

This is another question that some of you must ask, so let us respond to this question to satisfy everyone.

John the Ripper is a primary password cracker used during pen-testing exercises that can help IT guys spot weak passwords and poor password policies. It also supports several common encryption technologies for Unix and Windows-based Systems. It also autodetects the encryption on the hashed data.

John the Ripper also includes its own wordlists of common passwords for 20+ languages. John the RipperIs included in the pen-testing versions of Kali Linux.

Attack types

John the Ripper uses the dictionary attack. it takes text string samples from a wordlist. It offers also brute force attacks. In this type of attack John the Ripper goes through all the possible plaintext, hashing data, and then compares them to the input hash.

Also, it uses character frequency tables to try plaintext containing more frequently used characters first.

You may also like to see How to install Tool-X on termux

Some basic commands

Now we are going to go over some basics commands that you need to start using John the Ripper. To get started you need a file that contains a hash value to decrypt.

John usage example. (Tested in Kali Linux.)

Using a wordlist (–wordlist=/usr/share/john/password.lst), apply mangling rules(-rules) and attempt to crack the password hashes in the given file (unshadowed.txt).

root@kali:~# john --wordlist=/usr/share/john/password.lst --rules unshadowed.txt

Unique Usage Example

Using verbose mode (-v), read a list of passwords (-inp=allwords.txt) and save only unique words to a file (uniques.txt):

root@kali:~#  unique -v -inp=allwords.txt uniques.txt

This is the end of this article hope you get a clear understanding of John the Ripper. If you are having question or suggestion don’t keep it for your self just share with us Thank you.

Best android apps Termux learner in 2021 from play store

So do you want to learn Termux hacking or to improve your skills in hacking using your Android phone?. You are on the right way if you were having that need.

Knowledge is like a garden: if it is not cultivated, it cannot be harvested.

In our previous article, we have mentioned the Best android apps to learn programming in 2021. These android apps can help you in your journey as a software developer. In this article, we are going to see the best android apps Termux learner in 2021 from the play store.

Many people are using their mobile phones for chatting, calling, and messaging while others are transforming their Android phones as their library. Then, let us see how you can learn Termux hacking from your phone easily.

Best android apps you should install in 2021 from the Play store

Now, here is a list of all android apps we are going to discuss in this article, which will help you to have an idea of what we will discuss in this article.

Termux Guide

What You Will Learn with Termux Guide?

  • Phishing Attack
  • Brute Force Attack
  • Virus Making
  • Information Gathering
  • Termux API tools
  • Hacking tools
  • Important useful code
  • Penetration testing

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TermEX

Also, let us discuss this sweet app TermEX. Then, know that Termx is an application that has plenty of open-source tools guides. Also, it’s easy to copy and use them on your terminal.

Additionally, you can use these tools for penetration tester, ethical hacking, security, and education purpose also.

Termux Guide App in Tamil

Then, this is another app that we can’t forget in the list. With Termux guide app in tamil, you will easily learn how to use termux and all its tools and commands. Also, you can choose your language in order to understand the content provide by the app.

you may also like how to install Tool-X on Termux

Also, you can copy and paste code easily from the app to your Termux terminal, and each month they do update the app.

Termux Command

Also, with the Termux Command app, you can learn about all frequently using basic termux commands in detail.

Additionally, this app is very helpful for beginners in learning how termux works. After learning about these basic commands I am sure you will be able to install various termux tools so easily. These basic commands will help you to increase your ethical hacking & vulnerability analysis skills.

you may also like to know the difference between termux from linux

Termux- Tools Installation Guide

Then, let us see about the Termux tools installation guide, this app provides installation commands for install various tools in termux.
Also, it provides a guide for modifying termux overviews and add features in termux. Additionally, with the help of this guide, you can install tools for penetration testing in termux. Commands for installing the different operating systems in termux like Ubuntu, Windows, Kali, Parrot, Other Linux Distro.

You may also like to know how to install graphical environment in Termux

Closing words

Finally, we have enumerated all the Best android apps you should install in 2021 from the Play store to learn termux, now it’s your turn to choose what will fit best for you. good luck but don’t forget to give your comment so that we can know what is your choice among these apps.

Best android apps to learn programming in 2021

Isn’t exciting to you hear that you can learn programming wherever you are without buying books just with your Android device?.

The good news is that it’s possible to learn to program, wherever you can be, by using your android device. As everything seems to be programmable these days so many students, and other personalities seem to be interested in learning any programming language.

You may also like why you should learn python

As well as I said just with your android device you can learn to program. If a wrote this article it’s because many students were asking how they can study programming without buying programming books, after all, they are expensive.

Also, Developers are thinking days and nights about the solution to solve such problems, and they provided the solution for that problem.

Here we have Best android apps to learn programming in 2021 that can help you to learn to program.

SoloLearn /Android app

SoloLearn is an android app which helps you to learn easily programming using your android device.

It has the largest collection of FREE code learning content, from beginner to pro choose from thousands of programming topics to learn coding concepts, brush up your programming knowledge, or stay aligned with the latest coding trends.

Join millions of other coders for any time anywhere access to countless coding topics and assignments. Write and run real code in our mobile code editor, get inspired through real-life code samples, and engage in interactive community conversations along the way.

FRESH, FREE CONTENT DAILY:
• Web Development, including HTML5, CSS3, JavaScript, JQuery
• Python
• Java
• Kotlin
• C++
• C
• C#
• PHP
• SQL
• Algorithms & Data Structures
• Ruby
• Machine Learning
• Design Patterns
• Swift
• Git
• And many other topics you will not find anywhere else.

Easy Coder

Easy Coder is an innovative app for people who are looking for a good java coding learning app.

Learn programming through an easy-to-understand coding tutorial app and start building applications using Java programming language. The Java coding course is divided into a few fundamental categories so that you can learn smoothly.

Also, It’s a java tutorial app that starts from basic coding and gradually teaches you the most advanced-level stuff.

Key Features

  • Video Tutorials and Quizzes
  • Simple IU
  • Learn, Challenge, and Create
  • Learn Java Coding Fre

You may also like to see 6 common programming mistakes that every beginner must avoid

Programming Hub /Android app

With programming Hub you can Learn to code with HTML, Javascript, C, C++, C #, Swift, Python, R Programming, Java, Artificial Intelligence, CSS, etc. Free- “Programming Hub: Learn to Code” This code learning app is created using research and in collaboration with Google experts. You will learn to code like an expert, and also enjoy it like a game. The app is available in English only.

Then here are some courses you can learn with Programming Hub.

  • Apprendre HTML
  • Apprendre Javascript
  • Apprendre la programmation R
  • Apprendre CSS
  • Apprendre VB.net
  • Apprendre C# (C Sharp)
  • Apprendre Python 2.7
  • Apprendre Python 3
  • Apprendre à écrire des scripts Linux Shell
  • Apprendre la programmation R
  • Apprendre Swift
  • Apprendre SQL
  • Apprendre Jquery
  • Apprendre Assembly 8086

Encode /Android app

As well as other android apps for learning how to code , Encode is also among the best apps.

Key features

  • Everyone can learn to code, Encode will teach you coding right from the start.
  • Encode provide real code examples.
  • Encode includes plenty of interactive coding challenges that are designed to help you level up your coding skills.
  • Encode includes plenty of interactive coding challenges that are designed to help you level up your coding skills.

Enki

Enki is an award-winning app to learn to code, pick up new technical topics, or to sharpen your skills in general. Also is useful for both non-technical beginners and developers of all levels.

Topics include in Enki

  • SQL
  • Data Science
  • JavaScript
  • Python
  • React
  • Blockchain
  • CSS
  • HTML
  • Security
  • Git
  • Computer
  • Science
  • Regex
  • TypeScript
  • Docker
  • Go
  • MongoDB
  • Linux
  • Java
  • Spreadsheets.

Programming Hero

Programming hero is also one of the android apps to learn to program. With programming Hero you can:

  • Build a GAME while learning to code
  1. Quick Action: Apply programming concepts immediately after learning
  2. Brag Right: Publish your code and show off your work
  3. Practice Anywhere: Practice coding (Python, HTML, CSS, JavaScript)
  4. Instant Help: Get your questions answered instantly
  5. Smart Learning: Jump into advanced Data Structures, Algorithms, OOP, Database
  • You can also master
  1. 100+ coding problems, solutions & explanations
  2. Data Structures: Stack, Queue, Linked list, Dictionary, Tree, Graph
  3. Algorithms: Binary search, Bubble sort, Insertion sort, Time complexity
  4. OOP: Object, Class, Inheritance, Encapsulation, Polymorphism, etc.

Learn programming

Learn Programming (Web Development) is a Free app which teaches you by practice and by examples how to design and develop a page web using HTML, CSS, Bootstrap ( Responsive Web design ), JAVASCRIPT, Jquery, Angular Js,
in each course in development web in this app, you have a tutorial and how to write code and see the output of the code.

Code Hub

Code Hub is the best way to browse and learn to program through your mother tongue.

Now in Code Hub you can learn HTML and CSS. It’s short (just as long as a 50 page book), simple (for everyone: beginners, designers, developers), and free (as in ‘free beer’ and ‘free speech’). It consists of 50 lessons across 4 chapters, covering the WebHTML5CSS3.

CodeMurai

Like other apps you can learn to Code in HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Python, TypeScript, Angular 2, ES6, MongoDB, Node, React, Java, Android SDK, Swift, iOS SDK, Object-Oriented Programming, Computer Science, C#, Unity 3D and Phaser – it’s fun, engaging and productive!

Geek Code Hub Android tutorial

Android Tutorials is based on Android Learning on mobile devices.
Provide Tutorial, Souce code, live Example, Promoting E-learning and Offline Tutorial.

New in Geek Code Hub

  • New UI
  • Example added
  • Color palette added(Color Code)
  • Open source library details add
  • Crash remove

Closing words

Finally we have reached the end of this article wish you good luck for your choice among the list below. If you are having any suggestion or comment don’t keep it for your self just share with us. Thanks

Termux app| what is the difference from linux

Differences between Termux from Linux

Termux is an Android terminal emulator and Linux environment application that works directly with no rooting or setup required. A minimal base system is installed automatically, additional packages are available using the package manager.

diferrence between termux to linux

you can see that the environment setup in Termux is similar to that of a modern Linux distribution. However, running on Android implies several important differences. you can decide today to start with Termux and get familliar with it if not yet done.

Termux is not FHS compliant

File Hierarchy Standard

The reason why Termux does not use official Debian or Ubuntu packages for its environment it’s because it does not follow FHS.

You may like also to know how to install graphical environment on termux

what is FHS?

The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the directory structure and directory contents in Linux distributions. It is maintained by the Linux Foundation.

Termux does not follow Filesystem Hierarchy Standard unlike the majority of Linux distributions. You cannot find directories like /bin, /etc, /usr, /tmp, and others at the usual location. Thus, all programs should be patched and recompiled to meet the requirements of the Termux environment otherwise they will not be able to find their configuration files or other data.

You may have a problem executing scripts that have standard shebangs (e.g. #!/bin/sh). Use the termux-fix-shebang script to modify these files before executing. Recent versions of Termux provide a special package (termux-exec) that allows usage of standard she-bangs. Hope you can be happy to know these 6 best os for hacking and penetration testing

what is shebang?

shebang is the character sequence consisting of the character’s number sign and exclamation mark (#!) at the beginning of a script. It is also called sha-bang, hashbang, or hash-pling.

Most of packages have shared library dependencies which are installed to $ PREFIX/lib.

  • On devices before Android 7, Termux exports special variable ($ LD_LIBRARY_PATH) which tells linker to where find shared library files.
  • Also, on Android 7 or higher, DT_RUNPATH ELF header attribute is used instead of LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

If you still need a classical Linux file system layout for some reason, you may try to use termux-chroot from package ‘proot’:

$ pkg install proot
$ termux-chroot
$ ls /usr

Termux uses Bionic libc

Bionic Libc

To have best compatibility with Android OS and remove the need of maintaining custom toolchains termux developper compile all their packages with Android NDK. Resulting binaries are linked against Bionic libc (files libc.so, libm.so, libdl.so from /system/lib or /system/lib64).

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what is bionic?

Bionic is an implementation of the standard C library, developed by Google for its Android operating system.

Usage of libc provided by Android and FHS incompatibility disables ability to execute native packages copied from Linux distributions:

  • Dynamically linked programs will not run due to linker expected in nonexistent location (/lib) and libc ABI mismatch.
  • Statically linked programs (only networking ones) will not be able to resolve DNS names. GNU libc normally doesn’t allow static linking with resolver. Also, the file /etc/resolv.conf does not exist on Android.
  • On non-rooted Android 8 or newer, statically linked programs will not run due to issues with seccomp filter.

However, these restrictions can be bypassed by setting up a Linux distribution rootfs with PRoot

what is PRoot?

PRoot is a user-space implementation of chroot, mount –bind, and binfmt_misc. This means that users don’t need any privileges or set up to do things like using an arbitrary directory as the new root filesystem, making files accessible somewhere else in the filesystem hierarchy, or executing programs built for another CPU architecture transparently through QEMU user-mode.

Root file system is stored as ordinary application data

Root file system and user home directory are located in private application data directory which lives on data partition. Paths to these directories are exposed as $ PREFIX and $HOME respectively.

You cannot move $ PREFIX to another location because all programs expect that it will not be changed. Additionally, you cannot have binaries, symlinks, and other files from $ PREFIX on sdcard. The reason is simple – file system there does not support UNIX permissions, symlinks, sockets, etc…

if you uninstall the application or wipe data, directories $ PREFIX and $HOME will be wiped too. Before doing this, make sure that all-important data is backed up.

Termux is single-user

Android applications are convenient and have their own Linux user id and SELinux label. Termux is not an exception and everything within Termux is executed with the same user id as the application itself. User name may look like u0_a231 and cannot be changed as it is derived from user id by Bionic libc.

All termux packages (except root-only ones) are patched to drop any multiuser, setuid/setgid and other similar functionality. termux developer also changed default ports for server packages: ftpd, httpd and sshd have their default ports set to 8021, 8080, and 8022 respectively.

Termux developers give you freedom of read-write access to all application components including $PREFIX. Be careful since it is very easy to break things by accidentally deleting or overwriting files in $PREFIX.

closing words

congratulation you have reached the end of the article hope now you know the differences between termux and modern linux. thankyou.

How to install Tool-X on termux||ethical hacking

what is Tool-X?

you may wonder how to install the hacking tool for termux named Tool-X don’t worry you are on the right place, by following this article step by step you will be ready to install Tool-X properly on termux.

Tool-X is a Kali Linux hacking tools installer for Termux and Linux system. Tool-X was developed for Termux and Linux based systems.

Since you are using Tool-X, you can install almost 370+ hacking tools in Termux (android) and other Linux based distributions. Now Tool-X is available for Ubuntu, Debian.

You may like also to know what is the differences between Termux and Linux

who can install Tool-X?

As well as now you know what is Tool-X, sometimes you may ask your self questions if you can install Tool-X on your mobile , or if your phone can support Tool-X. let me tell you the good news is that Tool-X is available for :

Then to install Tool-X, make sure you have an android device then Termux installed on your mobile, and after following the next steps.

How to install Tool-X?

Besides, as now the answer of who can install Tool-x is answered let us see how now you can install Tool-X on Termux.

First ,open your termux terminal and type following commands.

  • apt update
  • apt install git if already install git you can go on step 3
  • git clone https://github.com/rajkumardusad/Tool-X.git
  • cd Tool-X
  • chmod +x install
  • sh install if not work use ./ install

How to use Tool-X?

Finally, we have answered the question, Who can install and how to install Tool-X.let then see how to use it. In addition to use, Tool-X navigates through the app. Also, Tool-X gives 5 option that you can choose from. To open Tool-X type Tool-x OR Toolx on the terminal.

You may like also to know best professional Hacking tools on Termux for Ethical Hackers

The first option is to type 1 then enter to show all Tool-X tools. it’s almost 370

If you want to show tools category type 2. enter

To update Tool-X type 3 then enter.

For about Tool-X type 4

Lastly type x if you want to close Tool-X

closing words

Hope you have enjoyed the content of this article, and I know that you have installed Tool-x. We are not responsible for any misuse or damage caused by this program. use this tool at your own risk!